WWF-Russia together with more than 300 specialists carried out a gap-analysis of the existing federal PAs system of the Russian Federation. This analysis is the first of its kind for Russia, in which a unified scientific and methodological approach was used, taking into account all available sources of information on biological diversity and protected areas of Russia. Special attention is paid to the role of the network of federal protected areas in longterm conservation of rare and valuable species. One of the key questions in carrying out this analysis was the adequacy of the network of protected areas for longterm conservation of each individual species, taking into consideration the specifics of its biology and current and potential threats. Russia has already 12 per cent of its territoty protected, but the analysis identified more than 600 perspective terrestrial and marine protected areas. The priorest of them were commited to be established by the Government of the Russian Federation by 2020.