Myth of invincibility shattered: evaluation of current trends in the conservation status of marine species

Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery

Abstract: Groupers are a valuable fishery resource of reef ecosystems and are among those species most vulnerable to fishing pressure because of life history characteristics including longevity, late sexual maturation and aggregation spawning. Despite their economic importance, few grouper fisheries are regularly monitored or managed at the species level, and many are reported to be undergoing declines. To identify major threats to groupers, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria were applied to all 163 species.

The Likelihood of Extinction of Iconic and Dominant Herbivores and Detritivores of Coral Reefs: the Parrotfishes and Surgeonfishes

Abstract: Parrotfishes and surgeonfishes perform important functional roles in the dynamics of coral reef systems. This is a consequence of their varied feeding behaviors ranging from targeted consumption of living plant material (primarily surgeonfishes) to feeding on detrital aggregates that are either scraped from the reef surface or excavated from the deeper reef substratum (primarily parrotfishes). Increased fishing pressure and widespread habitat destruction have led to population declines for several species of these two groups.

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