1 Orr, D.W. (2007). ‘Optimism and hope in a hotter time’. Conservation Biology 21(6): 1392–5 (p.1392).[link]
2 Boulding, K.E. (1965). ‘Earth as a Space Ship’. Washington State University, Committee on Space Sciences, May 10, (www.colorado.edu/econ/Kenneth.Boulding/spaceship-earth.html).
3 Ward, B. (1966). Spaceship Earth. New York, NY: University of Columbia Press; Boulding, K.E. (1966). ‘The economics of the coming spaceship earth’. In: Jarrett, H. (Ed.), Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, pp.3–14. Baltimore, MD: Resources for the Future/Johns Hopkins University Press.[link][link]
4 This phrase is from James Taylor (1981) ‘Sugar Trade’ from Dad Loves His Work, Columbia. See Oates, D. (1989). Earth Rising: Ecological belief in an age of science. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon.[link]
5 Boulding, op. cit., see note 3, (p.3).
6 Redclift, M. (2005). ‘Sustainable development (1987–2005) – an oxymoron comes of age’. Sustainable Development 13: 212–27. [CrossRef]
7 On Peak Oil, see: http://www.hubbertpeak.com/
8 Boulding, op. cit., see note 2.
9 ‘...development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (Brundtland, H. 1987. Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.43).[link]
10 www.forumforthefuture.org.uk/default.aspx; 20 October 2006.
11 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.[link]
12 This phrase is inspired (and justified) by Susan Strange, (1986). Casino Capitalism, Oxford: Blackwell.[link]
13 Lenton, T.M., Held, H., Hall, J.W., Lucht, W., Rahmstorf, S. and Schellnhuber, H.J. (2008). ‘Tipping elements in the earth's climate system’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 1786–1793. [CrossRef]
14 For accounts of these events, see Chatterjee, P. and Finger, M. (1994). The Earth Brokers: power, politics and world development. London: Routledge; Dresner, S. (2002). The Principles of Sustainability. London: Earthscan; Adams, W.M. (2008). Green Development: environment and sustainability in a developing world. London: Routledge.[link][link][link]
15 See for example Low, N. and Gleeson, B. (1998). Justice, Nature and Society: an exploration of political ecology. London: Routledge; Mol, A.P.J. (2001). Globalization and Environmental Reform: the ecological modernization of the global economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Hajer, M.A. (1995). The Politics of Environmental Discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[link][link][link]
16 Harry Callahan, Dirty Harry, 1971. (Warner Brothers, director Don Siegel).
17 For recent examples, see UNEP (2000) Global Environment Outlook 2000, Earthscan, London, for the United Nations Environment Programme. Also, Jenkins, M., Green, R. E. and Madden, J. (2003) ‘The challenge of measuring global change in wild nature: are things getting better or worse?’ Conservation Biology 17: 65–86. Also, Kennedy, D. and the Editors of Science (eds.) (2006) Science Magazine's State of the Planet 2006–7, Island Press, for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington. Also, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, op. cit., see note 11.[link][link][link]
18 And no lack of controversy over their claims, e.g., Lomborg, B. (2001). The Skeptical Environmentalist. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[link]
19 Loh, J., Randers, J., MacGillivray, A., Kapos, V., Jenkins, M., Groombridge, B., Cox, N. and Warren, B. (1999) Living Planet Report, WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Also, Hails, C., Loh, J. and Goldfinger, S. (2006) (eds) Living Planet Report 2006, WWF International, Zoological Society of London and Global Footprint Network, Gland, Switzerland. This tracks global populations of 1313 species. All of these are vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals), and although vertebrates represent only a fraction of known species, it is assumed that trends in their populations are typical of biodiversity overall. Separate indices are produced for terrestrial, marine and freshwater species, and then averaged to create an aggregated index.[link]
20 The Anthropocene refers to the current geological epoch of extensive human modification of ecological and geological processes (starting c. 1800 of the Common Era). See Crutzen, P.J. (2002). ‘Geology of mankind: the anthropocene’. Nature 415: 23 [CrossRef]; Steffen, W., Crutzen, P.J. and McNeill, J.R. (2007). ‘The Anthropocene: are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature?’ Ambio 36(8): 614–21.[link]
21 Steffen et al., op. cit., see note 20.
22 Vitousek, P.M., Mooney, H.A., Lubchenco, J. and Melillo, J.M. (1997). ‘Human Domination of Earth's Ecosystems’. Science 25 July 1997: 277 (5325): 494–499. [CrossRef]
23 IPCC. (2007). Summary for Policy Makers. Working Group III Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. WMO and UNEP.[link]
24 Hannah, L., Lohse, D., Hutchinson, C., Carr, J.L. and Lankerani, A. (1994). ‘A preliminary inventory of human disturbance of world ecosystems’. Ambio 23(4–5): 246–50.[link]
25 Rojstaczer, S., Sterling, S.M. and Moore, N.J. (2001). ‘Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis’. Bioscience 294: 25490–2552.
26 Imhoff, M.L., Bounoua, L., Ricketts, T., Loucks, C., Harriss, R. and Lawrence, W.T. (2004). ‘Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production’. Nature 429: 870–73. [CrossRef]
27 Fryzuk, M.D. (2004). ‘Ammonia transformed’. Nature 427: 498–9. [CrossRef]
28 Palumbi, S.R. (2001). ‘Humans as the World's Greatest Evolutionary Force’. Science 293(5536): 1786–90. [CrossRef]
29 Wilson, E.O. (1992). The Diversity of Life. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. See also Prance, G. T. (1991) ‘Rates of loss of biological diversity’, pp. 27–44 in I. F. Spellerberg, F. B. Goldsmith and M. G. Morris (eds), The Scientific Management of Temperate Communities for Conservation, Blackwell, Oxford. Also Smith, F. M., May, R. M., Pellew, R., Johnson, T. H. and Walter, K. S. (1993) Estimating extinction rates', Nature 364 (5 August): 494–6. Also, Hails et al. ref footnote 19. Also Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2006.[link][link]
30 Heywood, V.H. (Ed.) (1995). Global Biodiversity Assessment. UNEP/Cambridge University Press.
31 Hails et al. (2006): ref endnote 19 http://www.panda.org/news_facts/publications/living_planet_report/index.cfm; 11 July 2007.
32 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, op. cit., see note 11.
33 Myers, R.A. and Worm, B. (2003). ‘Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities’. Nature 423: 280–83 [CrossRef]; see also Pauley, D., Alder, J., Bennett, E., Christensen, V., Tyedmers, P. and Watson, R. (2003). ‘The future for fisheries’. Science 302: 1359–61; Roberts, C.M. (2007). The Unnatural History of the Sea. Washington, DC: Island Press.
34 UNEP. (2007). Global Environment Outlook: environment for development (GEO-4). Nairobi: EarthPrint, UNEP. http://www.unep.org/geo/geo4/media/
35 UNEP, op. cit., see note 34.
36 Wilson, op. cit., see note 29, (p.268).
37 Pac-Man is a classic Japanese arcade or video game released in 1980, arguably ‘a landmark in video game history’, and ‘among the most famous arcade games of all time’ (Wikipedia 16 May 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pac-Man) (see http://www.freepacman.org/welcome.html).
38 Crutzen, op. cit., see note 20.
39 IPCC, op. cit., see note 23.
40 Stern, N.H. (2006). The Economics of Climate Change: the Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[link]
41 Web 2.0 is a term coined by a second generation of web-based communities (e.g., social networking sites, wikis, blogs) that seek to promote creativity, collaboration and sharing among web users. The term became widely used following Tim O'Reilly's Web 2.0 conference in 2004.
42 McKie, R. (2006). ‘Dumped mobiles cause waste crisis’. Observer 25 March 2006 (www.guardian.co.uk/news/2006/mar/26/mobilephones.theobserversuknewspages). See also http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6174422.stm
43 The idea of ‘lift off’ is most associated with Walt Rostow (for example in Rostow, W.W. (1960). The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). For a critique, see Sachs, W. (Ed.) (1992). The Development Dictionary: a guide to knowledge as power. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press and London: Zed Books.[link][link]
44 World Bank. (2000). Entering the 21st Century: World Development Report 1999/2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[link]
45 Hausa proverb: literally ‘[if you] refuse another, [you] refuse yourself’ (i.e., meanness rebounds on the miser).
46 Wolfensohn, J.D. and Bourguignon, F. (2004). Development and Poverty Reduction: looking back, looking ahead. Washington, DC: The World Bank.[link]
47 Chen, S. and Ravallion, M. (2007). ‘Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981–2004’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 16757–16762. [CrossRef]
48 World Bank. (2007). World Development Indicators 2007. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/WDI07section1-intro.pdf
49 World Bank, op. cit., see note 48.
50 Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[link]
51 Chambers, R. (1995). ‘Poverty and livelihoods; whose reality counts?’ Environment and Urbanization 7(1): 173–204. [CrossRef]
52 Jane Weru of Shack Dwellers International, speaking at the UN Millennium Summit, 2005, S. Bass, pers. comm.
54 World Bank, op. cit., see note 48.
55 Holdren, J.P. (2008). ‘Science and technology for sustainable wellbeing’. Science 319: 424–34 (25 January 2008). [CrossRef]
56 Monbiot, G. (2007). Heat: how we can stop the planet burning, (p.xvii). Penguin Books. London: Allen Lane[link]
57 Bass, S. (2007). ‘A New Era in Sustainable Development: an IIED Briefing’. London: IIED.[link]
58 Orr, op. cit., see note 1, (p.1393).
60 See for example Hawken, P., Lovins, A.B. and Lovins, L.H. (2002). Natural Capitalism: the next industrial revolution. London: Earthscan.[link]
61 Heinberg, R. (2004). Powerdown: Options and Actions for a Post-Carbon World. Gabriola Island, British Columbia: New Society Publishers; Heinberg, R. (2006). The Oil Depletion Protocol: A Plan to Avert Oil Wars, Terrorism and Economic Collapse. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, (see also http://www.oildepletionprotocol.org/, and the Post Carbon Institute http://postcarbon.org/).
62 Monbiot, G. (2006). Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning, Allen Lane, London.[link]
63 Princeton University Carbon Mitigation Initiative (http://www.princeton.edu/wedges/index.xml).
64 J. Walsh, pers. comm. Using data from the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http//www.bp.com) and the CIA World Factbook (http//www.cia.gov/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html) it is calculated that the Canadian consumption of oil was 25.18 barrels per person per year; while Indian consumption was 0.89 barrels per person per year.
65 F. Sullivan, pers. comm.
66 M. King Hubbert used a logistic model in 1956 to predict that oil production in the USA would peak between 1965 and 1970. The Hubbert model is widely used in debates of global oil supplies. Pessimists believe that the peak has already occurred, or is close (http://www.hubbertpeak.com/). See Heinberg, R. (2007). Peak Everything: Waking Up to the Century of Declines. Gabriola Island, British Columbia: New Society Publishers.[link]
67 Pearce, F. and Aldhous, P. (2007). ‘Death of the biofuel dream?’ New Scientist 2634: 6–7.[link]
68 Barnham, K.W.J., Mazzer, M. and Clive, B. (2006). ‘Resolving the energy crisis: nuclear or photovoltaics?’ Nature Materials 5: 161–164. (doi:10.1038/nmat1604 <http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v5/n3/full/nmat1604.html>). [CrossRef]
69 Daviss, B. (2007) ‘Solar power: the future's bright’, New Scientist 8 December 2007: 32–7.[link]
70 Monbiot, op. cit., see note 62.
71 For example the houses developed by Biodiversity Conservation (India) Limited (BCIL) at Whitefield in Bangalore (Sudhindra, A.B. (2005). ‘Dwellings that help in preserving nature’. The Hindu October 8 2005) (http://www.thehindu.com/pp/2005/10/08/stories/2005100801070400.htm).
72 See for example http://www.saiqsst.com/
73 See for example Monbiot, op. cit., see note 62.
74 Pacala, S. and Socolow, R. (2007). ‘Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies’. Science 305: 468–72; see http://www.princeton.edu/wedges/index.xml [CrossRef]
76 Nuclear power never went out of policy fashion for electricity generation in countries such as France, but elsewhere the risks and benefits are being re-assessed (notably in the UK Government's U-turn in 2007).
77 Orr, D. (2006). ‘Framing sustainability’. Conservation Biology 20: 265–6, (p.266). [CrossRef]
80 Fanelli, D. (2007). ‘World failing on sustainable development’. New Scientist 2624: 10. It is likely that repressed consumer demand will express itself in large increases in energy use and consumption if markets liberalize and incomes rise. The Ecological Footprint, first conceived by William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel in 1990 at the University of British Colombia, is now widely used as a sustainability metric. It represents the area of biologically productive land and water a population (an individual, city, country, or all of humanity) requires to provide the resources it consumes and absorb its waste, using prevailing technology. See www.footprintnetwork.org and Global Footprint Network. (2007). Ecological Footprint Accounting: Building a Winning Hand. Oakland, CA: Global Footprint Network.
81 Maslow, A.H. (1943). ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’. Psychological Review 50: 370–96. [CrossRef]
82 See Thompson, S., Abdallah, S., Main, N., Simms, A. and Johnson, V. (2007). The European Happy Planet Index: an index of carbon efficiency and wellbeing in the EU. London: The New Economics Foundation; and Simms, A. and Smith, J. (2008). (Eds) Do Good Lives Have to Cost the Earth? London: Constable.[link][link]
83 Guha, R. and Martinez-Alier, J. (1997). Varieties of Environmentalism: essays North and South. London: Earthscan; Guha, R. (2000). Environmentalism: a global history. Delhi: Oxford University Press.[link][link]
91 De Graaf, J., Wann, D. and Naylor, T.H. (2001). Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.[link]
92 Scudder, T. (2005). The Future of Large Dams: Dealing with the social, environmental and political costs. London: Earthscan.[link]
93 The phrase ‘conservation movement’ is used here to refer to organizations in whole or in part committed to wildlife or biodiversity conservation.
94 This phrase is from Wilson, op. cit., see note 29.
95 And it implies that ecosystems ‘work’ until they collapse, whereas in reality their structure and function change with every species loss.
96 Adams, W.M. (2004). Against Extinction: the story of conservation. London: Earthscan.[link]
97 IUCN. (2005). Benefits Beyond Boundaries. Proceedings of the Vth World Parks Congress. Cambridge and Gland: IUCN, (p. 220).[link]
98 Adams, op. cit., see note 96.
99 See the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa), and the database on protected areas: www.wcmc.org.uk/protected_areas/data/cnppa.html
101 Heinberg, R. (2008).‘Foreword’. In: Hopkins, R., The Transition Handbook: from oil dependency to local resilience, p.10. Devon: Green Books.[link]
102 Brown, L.R. (2006). Plan B. 2.0: rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, for the Earth Policy Institute.[link]
103 Rostow, op. cit., see note 43.
104 Paehlke, R. (2005). ‘Sustainability as a bridging concept’. Conservation Biology 19: 36–8. [CrossRef]
105 Newton, J.L. and Freyfogle, E.T. (2004). ‘Sustainability: a dissent’. Conservation Biology 19: 23–32.[link]
106 Bradsher, K. (2008). ‘In China, car blazes path to respect’. New York Times in the Observer 4 May 2006, pp.1 and 4.
107 Latouche, S. (2004). ‘Degrowth economics: Why less should be so much more’. Le Monde Diplomatique, November 2004 (http://mondediplo.com/2004/11/14latouche).
108 Daly, H.E. (Ed.) (1973). Towards a Steady-State Economy. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman; Daly, H.E. (1977). Steady-State Economics: the economics of biophysical equilibrium and moral growth. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.[link][link]
109 See Daly, H. (2007). Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development; selected essays of Herman Daly. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.[link]
110 Sen, op. cit., see note 50.
111 See http://www.environment.yale.edu/newconsciousness/. The meeting, ‘Towards a New Consciousness: Creating a Society in Harmony with Nature’, concluded that we lack knowledge about the role of human values in sustainable development, and that we need to renew an understanding of the human relationship with nature through new stories and narratives, and move from ‘a life of riches to a richer life’.
112 Jeanrenaud, S. (2008). The Future of Sustainability: Have Your Say! Summary of the IUCN E-Discussion Forum 2006. Gland: IUCN. See http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn___have_your_say_.pdf
113 Jeanrenaud, S. (2007). “The Future isn't what it used to be”. A New Era of Sustainability & The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Gland: IUCN. See http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/the_future_isn_t_what__it_used_to_be_2007__4.pdf
114 Paehlke, op. cit., see note 104, (p.36).
115 See http://www.beyond-GDP.eu
116 Stern, N. (2007). The Economics of Climate Change: the Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[link]
117 Sukhdev, P. (2008). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. Interim Report. Presented to the CBD COP 9, Bonn, Germany, 29 May 2008 (http://www.bmu.de/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/sukhdev_interim_report.pdf). The first draft of the final report will be available in mid 2009.
118 See http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-05/haog-teo052908.php
119 See http://www.bmu.de/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/sukhdev_interim_report.pdf
120 Quoted in Jowit, J. (2008). ‘California's burning ambition’. The Observer Business and Media, 17 February 2008, p.11.[link]
121 Jowit, op. cit., see note 120.
122 Worldwatch Institute. (2008). State of the World 2008: Innovations for a Sustainable Economy. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute.[link]
123 Worldwatch Institute, op. cit., see note 122.
124 New Scientist. (2008). ‘the only game in town’. New Scientist 198(2652): 3 (19 April 2008).[link]
125 Pearce, F. (2008). ‘Dirty, sexy money’. New Scientist 198(2652): 38–41 (19 April 2008). [CrossRef]
126 Lester Brown, pers comm.
127 Wackernagel, M. and Rees, W. (1996). Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. See also note 80.[link]
128 WWF. (2007). Europe 2007. Gross Domestic Product and Ecological Footprint. Brussels: WWF European Policy Office (EPO).[link]
129 For more details on methodologies of calculating footprint and national footprint accounts see www.footprintnetwork.org
130 Ecological footprint methodology has been critiqued on several grounds. There are questions as to how sea areas should be counted, and how fossil fuel and CO2 should be accounted for. To some, footprint analysis seems to underestimate the value of biodiversity and original ecosystems, or to deny the benefit of trade. Footprint methodologies are evolving all the time, and as different approaches emerge, footprint standards are helping create consistent measures and comparable results around the world.
132 Brown, op. cit., see note 102.
133 <http://www.factor10-institute.org/index.htm>: the Factor 10 Club.
134 Links to Natural Step: http://www.naturalstep.org/com/nyStart/ Biomimicry: http://www.biomimicryinstitute.org/ Natural Capitalism: http://www.natcap.org/ Cradle to Cradle: http://www.mcdonough.com/cradle_to_cradle.htm Industrial Ecology: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology
135 Benyus, J.M. (1997). Biomimicry. Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York, NY: Quill, William Morrow & Company.[link]
136 McDonough, W. and Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to Cradle. Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York, NY: North Point Press.[link]
138 Hawken, P. (2007). The Blessed Unrest. Penguin Books.[link]
139 Martinez-Alier, J. (2005). The Environmentalism of the Poor: A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation. Delhi: Oxford University Press.[link]
141 Existing GANs address a range of issues, including provision of water; climate change; corporate reporting and performance standards; corporate performance; sustainable fishing or forestry; youth employment; nutrition; HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria; corruption; micro enterprise (www.gan-net).
142 Young, O.R. (1999a). The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press; (1999b). Governance in World Affairs. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.[link][link]
143 Reinicke, W.H. (1999–2000). ‘The Other World Wide Web: Global Public Policy Networks’. Foreign Policy: 44–57.[link]
144 Like this one.
146 For example, initiatives such as ‘One Laptop per Child’, http://laptop.org/
148 Gunderson, L., and Holling, C.S. (Eds) (2002). Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, DC: Island Press (see also http://www.resalliance.org/593.php)
149 Walker, B. and Salt, D. (2006). Resilience Thinking. Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World. Washington, DC: Island Press.[link]
150 See http://www.e3g.org/index.php
151 The World Business Council for Sustainable Development, a coalition of 140 international companies, was formed in January 1995, ‘to provide business leadership as a catalyst for change toward sustainable development’, http://www.wbcsd.ch/; see also Mason, M. (2005). The New Accountability: environmental responsibility across borders. London: Earthscan.
152 The ‘bottom of the pyramid’ refers to the approximately four billion people living on less than US$2 per day, first defined in Prahalad, C.K. and Hart, S.L. (1998). ‘The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid’. Strategy + Business 26: 54–67.
153 Dragons' Den is a television programme that originated with the Sony Corporation in Japan, but has now spread across the globe. In the programme, entrepreneurs pitch ideas to business experts to obtain investment. The show is famous for the trenchant criticism that weak ideas receive.
154 Speech in Chiba, Japan, reported by Juliette Jowitt and Robin McKie, Observer 16 March 2008, p.8.
155 Arnaud Collin, pers. comm.; web site on ‘Le Grenelle de l'Environnement’: www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr
156 See for example http://www.grossinternationalhappiness.org/gnh.html
157 El-Ashry, M., (2007), quoted in Swart, L. and Perry, E. (2007). Global Environmental Governance: Perspectives on the Current Debate. New York, NY: Center for UN Reform Education. See http://www.centerforunreform.org/node/251
158 Hawken, op. cit., see note 138.
159 In Rural Rides (1830) he wrote: “what is to be the fate of the great wen of all? The monster, called, by the silly coxcombs of the press, ‘the metropolis of the empire’?”
160 For example UN-Habitat Sustainable Cities Programme: http://hq.unhabitat.org/
161 http://www.bollywoodstars.com/2008/03/31/latest-interview-of-aamir-khan/ (14 May 2008); http://www.liveindia.com/news/zzg.html (14 May 2008).
162 In 2005, Hilary Clinton, US Congress Member, described the computer game Grand Theft Auto as a ‘major’ moral threat to Americans http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/may/04/games.usa (14 May 2008).
163 See for example the work of the Second Life Environmental Council: http://earthdayinsecondlife.wikispaces.com/Environmental+Council (14 May 2008); see also Tim Adams ‘Goodbye, cruel world’, Observer 29 October 2006 (http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2006/oct/29/games.observerreview; accessed 14 May 2008).
164 Crompton, T. (2008). Weathercocks and Signposts. The environmental movement at a crossroads. Godalming: WWF-UK.[link]
166 Shellenberger, M. and Nordhaus, T. (2004). ‘The death of environmentalism: global warming politics in a post-environmental world’. http://www.thebreakthrough.org/images/Death_of_Environmentalism.pdf
167 The Day After Tomorrow (2004), a Twentieth Century Fox film, grossing US$542,771,772.
168 Orr, op. cit., see note 1.
169 Orr, op. cit., see note 1, (quoting Peter Montague).
170 Orr, op. cit., see note 1, (p.1395).
171 The 63rd IUCN Council 2006. Decision C/63/16.
172 See http://cms.iucn.org
173 The World Conservation Strategy, (Geneva and Gland: UNEP, IUCN and WWF).
174 Caring for the Earth, (Geneva and Gland: UNEP, IUCN and WWF).
175 Adams, W.M. (2006). The Future of Sustainability: Rethinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century. Gland: IUCN. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf
177 Meetings were held at: South American Regional Membership Meeting, Ecuador: March 2007 (SUR); Peace and Sustainability Conference, Netherlands: March 2007 (CEESP); Regional Members Meeting, Iran: May 2007 (WESCANA); Regional Membership Meeting, South Africa: May 2007 (ROSA); 10th Anniversary of West Africa Office, July 2007 (BRAO); Regional Membership Meeting, Costa Rica, August 2007 (ORMA); Regional Membership Meeting, Congo, September 2007 (BRAC); Ethics Workshop, USA September 2007 (CEL); Regional Members Forum, Nepal, September 2007 (ARO); 2nd Latin American Parks Congress, Bariloche, Argentina: September 2007 (WCPA).
178 Jeanrenaud, op. cit., see note 113. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/the_future_isn_t_what__it_used_to_be_2007__4.pdf
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