About the Authors:

Morten Walløe Tvedt

Morten Walløe Tvedt is currently senior research fellow at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI) in Oslo, Norway, where he has published extensively in the field of intellectual property rights, the Convention on Biological Diversity and genetic resources. His main research area is the interplay between international agreements relevant for biological diversity and genetic resources and their implementation in developed and developing countries.

His latest work includes interdisciplinary studies of exchange, sustainable use and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) for the FAO and the Nordic Gene Bank for Farm Animals. This includes a study of how the current work for further harmonization of patent law globally will affect the management of genetic resources.

His doctoral thesis deals with the sui generis alternative for establishing intellectual property rights to plant varieties according to the TRIPS Agreement Article 27.3b.

His first assignment on biological diversity and genetic resources was in the interdisciplinary research project From Plants in the South to Medicines in the North in 1999, where he conducted a legal case-study of the Costa Rican implementation of the CBD.

Before taking up the position at the FNI he worked as an assistant lawyer at the law firm Hjort DA in Oslo. During this period of time he had consultancy work for the Norwegian Ministry of Environment in their work to draft a Nature Diversity Act which, among a number of biodiversity-related issues, deals with the right to genetic resources in Norway and access to these resources.

He has extensive teaching experience in law, and has written two text books in legal argumentation and legal analysis.

He is a Norwegian citizen, currently residing in Bahia, Brazil and in Norway.

Tomme Rosanne Young

Tomme Rosanne Young is currently an independent consultant on environmental law and policy and international mechanisms. She began her legal career in the United States, where she initially worked in commercial and property law, slowly evolving to address the complex interaction of such laws with environmental obligations of companies and individuals. In 1988, she co-authored a legal treatise on this interrelationship (Machlin and Young, 1988, Managing Environmental Risk in Real Estate and Business Transactions, The West Group, (updated annually) which remains a standard reference and practice guide in American environmental law. During her years in private practice as an attorney in the US, she represented commercial clients, government agencies, towns and cities, and private citizens in a variety of venues, including administrative permitting, inspections and compliance, transactional negotiations, and litigation. In the late 1980s she began to work outside the United States, representing some private clients, but primarily working with governmental, intergovernmental, private sector and civil society groups in developing practical solutions to legislative and transactional needs and controversies

Between the years of 1988 and 2000, her primary employment was as a consultant on national environmental and technical legislation, working primarily through UN organs, including FAO, UNDP and the GEF. In that capacity, she provided technical assistance to 24 developing countries and countries in transition and to three indigenous groups in the drafting of environmental laws and setting up regulatory systems. In several of these assignments, her work focused on the application of commercial and financial concepts and laws to environmental purposes, including the use of environmental and conservation trust funds, mortgage and fee systems, commercial permit systems, certification programs, compensation systems, incentives and other measures for these purposes.

After 2000, Ms Young served as the Senior Legal Officer at IUCN until April 2006. While she continued to provide national legislative advice and technical assistance working directly with governments of nine countries, her primary work has been in international law and policy, particularly in working with and through global and regional environmental and conservation instruments, and assisting in their implementation at the national level. Since 2003, she has also headed The ABS Project, under which this book has been published. Her first formal work on ABS began under a FAO project initiated in 1991, under which she researched the issue in detail, preparatory to developing a guide for FAO member countries in implementing the CBD. She is proud to say that her opinions on ABS issues have evolved since that initial work.

She is a United States citizen, currently residing in Bonn, Germany.

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