References

Anton, M., N. Dragffy, S. Pendry and T.R.Young (eds). 2002. Proceedings of the International Expert Workshop on the Enforcement of Wildlife Trade Controls in the EU. IUCN-ELC and TRAFFIC International. [Link]

Bryant P.J. and D.S. Simpson. 1984. Intrinsic and extrinsic control of growth in developing organs. Quarterly Review of Biology 59:387415. [Link]

Barber, C.V. 2005. “Defining the Purpose, Scope and Modalities of an International Regime on Genetic Resources Access and Benefit Sharing: Some Issues for Discussion.” Paper presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Beattie, A. 2005. “New Products and Industries from Biodiversity”, Chapter 10 in Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. [Link]

Benavidez, P. 2004. “Philippines: Evolving Access and Benefit-sharing Regulations.” Carrizosa, S., S. Brush, B. Wright and P. McGuire (eds), Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits: Lessons from Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity, pp 153–175. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 54. IUCN-ELC, in collaboration with BMZ, Germany and GRCP, University of California, Davis. [Link]

Bhatti, S., S. Carrizosa, P. McGuire and T. Young. 2007. Contracting for ABS: The Legal and Scientific Implications of Bioprospecting Contracts. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67/4, The ABS Series. [Link]

Bostyn, S.J.R. 2002. “A European Perspective on the Ideal Scope of Protection and the Disclosure Requirement for Biotechnological Inventions in a Harmonised Patent System – The Quest for the Holy Grail?” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 5(6): 10131046.

Börkey, P, M. Glachant and F. Lévêsque. 1999. Voluntary Approaches for Environmental Policy: An Assessment. OECD. [Link]

Brown, M.G. 1994. “Is your Measurement System Well Balanced?” Journal for Quality and Participation 17(6): 611. [Link]

Cabrera Medaglia, J. and C. López Silva. 2007. Addressing the Problems of Access: Protecting Sources, While Giving Users Certainty. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67/1, The ABS Series. [Link]

Casas-Castañeda, F. 2005. “User and provider country measures in the context of the international regime on access and benefit sharing.” Paper presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Chambers, W.B. 2003. “Emerging International Rules on the Commercialization of Genetic Resources – The FAO International Plant Genetic Treaty and CBD Bonn Guidelines.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 6(2): 311328.

Chaytor, B., R. Gerster and T. Herzog. 2002. “The Convention on Biological Diversity – Exploring the Creation of a Mediation Mechanism.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 5(2): 157180.

Commoner, Barry. 2002. “Unraveling the DNA Myth: The spurious foundation of genetic engineering.” Harper's Magazine, February, p. 39. [Link]

Coughanowr, C., M. Ngoile and O. Lindén. 1995. “Coastal Zone Management in Eastern Africa Including Island States.” Ambio 24(78).

Correa, C. 2004. “The WIPO Draft Substantive Patent Law Treaty: A Review of Selected Provisions,” Working Papers 17, South Centre.

Dahr, B. and R.V. Anuradha. 2004. “Access, Benefit Sharing and Intellectual Property Rights.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(5): 597639. [Link]

Dross, M. and F. Wolff. 2005. New Elements of the International Regime on Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources – the Role of Certificates of Origin. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. [Link]

Dutfield, G. 2002. “Sharing the Benefits of Biodiversity – Is there a Role for the Patent System?” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 5(6): 899932.

Farnsworth, E.A., 2006. “Comparative Contract Law.” Reimann, M. and R. Zimmermann, The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law, pp. 899937. Oxford University Press. [Link]

Fernández Ugalde, J.C. 2005. “User and provider country measures in the context of the international regime.” Presented in International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 2023 September 2005.

Fowler, C., G. Hawtin, R. Ortiz, M. Iwanaga and J. Engels. 2004. “The Question of Derivatives – Promoting Use and Ensuring Availability of Non-proprietary Plant Genetic Resources.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(5): 641663.

Fowler, C., M. Smale and S. Gaiji. 2001. “Unequal Exchange? Recent Transfers of Agricultural Resources and their Implications for Developing Countries.” Development Policy Review 19(2): 181204. [Link]

Dedeurwaerdare and Frison. 2006. Infrastructures publiques et régulations sur l'Accès aux ressources génétiques et le Partage des Avantages qui découlent de leur utilisation pour l'innovation dans la recherche des sciences de la vie: Accès conservation et utilisation de la diversité biologique dans l'intérêt général. Service Public Fédéral Santé Publique, Sécurité de la Chaîne Alimentaire et Environnement, Belgium Environmental Directorate. [Link]

Gervais, D. 2003. “TRIPS, Doha and Traditional Knowledge.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 6(3): 403419. [Link]

Girsberger, M.A. 2004. “Transparency Measures under Patent Law regarding Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge – Disclosure of Source and Evidence of Prior Informed Consent and Benefit Sharing.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(4): 451490.

Glowka, L., F. Burhenne-Guilmin, H. Synge, J.A. McNeely and L. Gündling. 1994. A Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 30. [Link]

Glowka, L. 1998. A Guide to Developing National Legislative Frameworks to Determine Access to Genetic Resources. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 34.

Hårstad, J. et al. 2005. Evaluation of GEF Support for Biosafety. GEF.

Hendrickx, F., V. Koester and C. Prip. 1993. “Convention on Biological Diversity Access to Genetic Resources: A Legal Analysis.” Environmental Policy and Law 23(6): 254–255.

Hiemstra, S.J., Drucker, A.G., Tvedt, M.W., Louwaars, N., Oldenbroek, J.K., Awgichew, K., Abegaz Kebede, S., Bhat, P.N. & da Silva Mariante A. (2006). Exchange, Use and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources: Identification of policy and regulatory options, CGN Report 2006/06. Wageningen (NL) Centre for Genetic Resources.

Hirsch, L. 2005. “Provider and User Country Measures – Do Two Wrongs Ever Make a Right?” Paper presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Hodges, T.J. and A. Daniel. 2005. “Deep Sea Genetic Resources and the International ABS Regime: Reflections on the Challenges Ahead.” Paper presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Holm-Müller, K., C. Richerzhagen and S. Täuber. 2005. Users of Genetic Resources in Germany. BFN-Skripten 126. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. [Link]

Hubert, P. and S. Hernandez. 2005. “Evaluation économique de l'utilisation des ressources génétiques en France.” Interim report.

IISD, Stratos and J. Cabrera. 2005. A Guide to Using the Working Draft ABS Management Tool. Swiss State Secretariat For Economic Affairs. [Link]

Jalbert, O. 2005. “Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Bonn Guidelines and the Negotiation of the International Regime on Access and Benefit-sharing.” Feit, U., M. den Driesch and W. Lobin (eds.), Access and Benefit-sharing of Genetic Resources: Ways and Means for Facilitating Biodiversity Research and Conservation While Safeguarding ABS Provisions, pp. 9–18. BfN Skripten 163. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. [Link]

Krasner, S. 1982. “Structural causes and regime consequences: regimes as intervening variables.” International Organization 36(2): 185205. [Link]

Latorre, F. 2005. Review of the Experience of Implementation by UK Stakeholders of Access and Benefit-sharing Arrangements under the Convention on Biological Diversity. DEFRA, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Lesser W. 1998. Sustainable use of Genetic Resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity, Exploring Access and Benefit Sharing Issues. CAB International.

Lettington, R. and D. Dogley. 2006. Commentary on the Development of the Republic of Seychelles Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing Bill. IPGRI. [Link]

McAfee, K. 1999. Selling Nature to Save it? Biodiversity and Green Developmentalism. Environment & Planning D: Society and Space. Pion. [Link]

Merchant, M.E., K. Mills, N. Leger, E. Jerkins, K. Vliet and N. McDaniel. 2006. “Comparisons of Innate Immune Activity of all Known Living Crocodilian Species.” In Proceedings of the 18th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, pp. 343–359. Montélimar: IUCN CSG. [Also see poster presentation at that meeting: M. Merchant et al., “Effects of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide on Peripheral Leukocytes in the American Alligator,” p. 364]. [Link]

Mgbeoji, I. 2006. “Analysis of Four Claims of Unauthorised Access and Misappropriation of Genetic Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge.” Reprinted in: Young et al., 2007, Covering ABS: Addressing the Need for Sectoral, Geographical, Legal and International Integration in the ABS Regime. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67, The ABS Series, Book 5. [Link]

Moore, G. and W. Tymowsky. 2005. Explanatory Guide to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 57. [Link]

Nuffield Council on Bioethics. 2001. The Ethics of Patenting DNA. The Nuffield Foundation of Bioethics. [Link]

Pythoud, F. 2005. “The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, a key component of the International Regime on Access and Benefit Sharing.” Paper presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Oldam, P. 2004. “Global Status and Trends in Intellectual Property Claims.” Genomics, Proteonomics and Biotechnology. CESAGEN. [Link]

bin Osman, M. 2005. “Issues of bioprospecting and implementation of ABS legislation at national and regional levels.” Paper presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Parnham and Rispin. 2000. Residential Property Appraisal, Spon Press.

Pau Pedrón, A. 2002. “The Register as an Instrument of Security in Property Transactions.” Sánchez Jordán, M.E. and A. Gambaro, Land Law in Comparative Perspective, pp. 8795. Kluwer Law International.

Reid, W., S. Laird, C. Meyer, R. Gámez, A. Sittenfeld, D. Janzen, M. Gollin and C. Juma. 1993. Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development. World Resources Institute. [Link]

da Rocha Vianna, H. 2005. “Objectives and Possible Elements of an International Regime, and its Nature.” Paper presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Romstad, E. and G. Stokstad. 2005. “Valuation of Genetic Resources.” Study provided by the Norwegian Council of Genetic Resources, www.genressurser.no.

Rosenthal, J.P. 2006. “Politics, Culture, and Governance in the Development of Prior Informed Consent in Indigenous Communities.” Current Anthropology 47(1): 116. [Link]

Rosenthal, J.P., D. Beck, A. Bhat, J. Biswas, L. Brady, K. Bridbord, S. Collins, G. Cragg, J. Edwards, A. Fairfield, M. Gottlieb, L.A. Gschwind, Y. Hallock, R. Hawks, R. Hegyeli, G. Johnson, G.T. Keusch, E.E. Lyons, R. Miller, J. Rodman, J. Roskoski and D. Siegel-Causey. 1999. “Combining High Risk Science with Ambitious Social and Economic Goals.” Pharmaceutical Biology 37, supplement. Swets & Zeitlinger. [Link]

Rosenthal, J., “Measure to Ensure Compliance with CBD and Access Legislation.” Presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing, Cuernavaca, 24–27 October 2004.

Rosenthal, J.P. 1996. “Equitable Sharing of Biodiversity Benefits: Agreements on Genetic Resources.” Investing in Biological Diversity: Proceedings of the Cairns Conference. OECD. [Link]

Ruiz, M. and I. Lapeña (eds.) 2007. A Moving Target: Genetic Resources and Options for Tracking and Monitoring their International Flows. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67/3, The ABS Series. [Link]

Safrin, S. 1998. “Hyperownership in a Time of Biotechnological Promise: The International Conflict to Control the Building Blocks of Life.” The American Journal of International Law 98: 641. [CrossRef]

Sampath, P.G. 2004. “Intellectual Property Rights on Traditional Medicinal Knowledge – A Progress- Oriented Perspective.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(5): 711737.

Scott, P.T. 2005. “User and provider country measures in the context of the international regime: Some thoughts and observations based on the experiences of the Uniform Biological Material Transfer Agreement Project.” Presented at the International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, Cape Town, 20–23 September 2005.

Shany, V. 2003. The Competing Jurisdictions of International Courts and Tribunals. Oxford University Press.

Smith, A. and T. Young. 2006. “Innovative financial and incentive mechanisms for promoting the conservation of High Conservation Value Forests.” Forest Stewardship Council.

Svarstad H. and S. S. Dhillion. 2000. “Responding to bioprospecting: Rejection or regulation?” In Svarstad and Dhillion (eds). Bioprospecting. Spartacus.

Swiderska, K. 2001. Stakeholder Participation in Policy on Access to Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Benefit Sharing. Case studies and recommendations. Biodiversity and Livelihoods Issues, No 4. IIED. [Link]

Tobin, B. 2004. “Certificates of Origin, Legal Provenance and Source: Mutually Exclusive or Complementary Elements of a Comprehensive Certification Scheme.” International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing: Record of Discussion, pp. 271277 at 275. CONABIO and Environment Canada. [Link]

Tosh, D. and W. Rayburn. 2006. Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice. 13th Ed. Dearborn Real Estate Education.

Tvedt, M.W. 2007. [Forthcoming] “The Disclosure Obligation in Norwegian Legislation: Is it Likely to Lead to Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing?”

Tvedt, M.W., S.J. Hiemstra, Drucker, N. Louwaars, K. Oldenbroek. 2007. Legal Aspects of Exchange, Use and Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. The Fridtjof Nansen Institute 1/2007. [Link]

Tvedt, M.W. 2006. “Elements for Legislation in User Countries to Meet the Fair and Equitable Benefit- Sharing Commitment.” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 9(2): 189–212. [CrossRef]

Tvedt, M.W. 2005. “How Will a Substantive Patent Law Treaty Affect the Public Domain for Genetic Resources and Biological Material?” The Journal of World Intellectual Property 8(3): 311–344.

UNCITRAL (undated) “commentary on the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods” and Travaux Préparatoires, available online in UNCITRAL's website: http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/sale_goods/1980CISG_travaux.html.

UNU-IAS. 2003. User Measures – Options for Developing Measures in User Countries to Implement the Access and Benefit-Sharing Provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity. UNU-IAS. [Link]

Vogel, J. 2007. “Reflecting Financial and other Incentives of the TMOIFGR: The Biodiversity Cartel.” Ruiz and Lapeña, (eds.), A Moving Target: Genetic Resources and Options for Monitoring their International Flows, ch. 3. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67/3, The ABS Series. [Link]

Waldron. 1993. Printed in Chisum, D. S. N., Craig Allen & Schwartz, Herbert F. & Newman, Pauline & Kieff, F. Scott (1998). Principles of Patent Law. New York, Foundation Press.

WIPO Study No. 3. WIPO Technical Study on Patent Disclosure Requirements Related to Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge. WIPO Publication No. 786(E).

Westerlund, L. 2001. Biotech Patents –Equivalency and Exclusions under European and U.S. Patent Law. Juridiska fakulteten vid Stockholms universitet.

Wolfe, T.A. and B. Zycher. 2005. Biotechnological and Pharmaceutical Research and Development Investment Under a Patent-Based Access and Benefit-Sharing Regime. Pacific Research Institute.

Young, T. 2006a. “An Analysis of Claims of Unauthorized Access and Misappropriation of Genetic Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge,” distributed at AHWG-ABS-4 as UNEP/CBD/WG-ABS/4/INF/6. [Link]

Young, T. 2005. “Summary Analysis: Legal Certainty for Users of Genetic Resources under Existing Access and Benefit-sharing (ABS) Legislation and Policy,” distributed at AHWG-ABS-3 as UNEP/CBD/WGABS/3/INF10. [Link]

Young, T. 2007. Covering ABS: Addressing the Need for Sectoral, Geographical, Legal and International Integration in the ABS Regime. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67/5, The ABS Series. [Link]

Young, T. 2004. [Unpublished]. An Examination of Environmental Certification Systems and Standards Development: IUCN Situation Analysis. (IUCN/III-C).

Young, T. 2006b. An Implementation Perspective on International Law of Genetic Resources: Incentive, Consistency and Effective Operation. Yearbook of International Environmental Law 15: 393 (anchor article). Oxford University Press.

NATIONAL Laws:

AUSTRALIA: Environment Protection and Conservation Regulations, 2000, Statutory Rules 2000 N° 181, as amended (taking into account amendments up to SLI 2006 N° 131, Parts 8A, 9, 10, and 17). [Link]

AUSTRALIA: Queensland Biodiscovery Act, Act N° 19, 24 Aug 2004; and other documents available on the CBD's ABS Measures database through March 2007. [Link]

BRAZIL: Provisional Act N° 2,186-16 implementing the CBD Articles 1, 8j, 10c, 15 and 16, (August 23, 2001). [Link]

COSTA RICA: Normas Generales para el Acceso a los Elementos y Recursos Genéticos y Bioquimicos de la Biodiversidad; Decreto No. 31 514, 2003, issued pursuant to the Organic Law on the Environment (N° 7554 of 4 Oct. 1995) §§ 46–47; and the Biodiversity Law (N° 7788 of 30 April 1998), § 62. [Link]

COSTA RICA: Estrategia Nacional de Biodiversidad, 1999. Accessed via the CHM's ABS Measures database.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION: EU Directive on Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions (EC/98/44).

EUROPEAN COMMISSION: EC 2003 “Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, The implementation by the EC of the ‘Bonn Guidelines’ on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity,” COM(2003) 821 final, Brussels, 23.12.2003.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION: EC 2002, “Second Report of the European Community to the Convention on Biological Diversity: Thematic Report on Access and Benefit Sharing” (CHM).

EUROPEAN COMMISSION: 2001. Regulation (EC) No 761/2001 allowing voluntary participation by organizations in a Community Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS).

JAPAN: METI/KBA. 2006. Guidelines for Access to Genetic Resources for Users in Japan, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (adopted March 2005, published in English, 2006). Available online in English at http://www.mabs.jp/information/oshirase/pdf/iden_tebiki_e.pdf.

NETHERLANDS: State Secretary of Agriculture, (undated), Nature Management and Fisheries, Sources of Existence: Conservation and the Sustainable Use of Genetic Diversity. Available online at http://www.absfocalpoint.nl/documents/note_on_biodiversity_Complete.pdf.

NORWAY: The first draft Nature Diversity Act, NOU 2004:28. Available online at http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/md/NOU-2004-28.html?id=388846.

NORWAY: Draft Marine Resources Act, NOU 2005:10. Available online at http://www.regjeringen.no/Rpub/NOU/20052005/010/PDFS/NOU200520050010000DDDPDFS.pdf.

UNITED STATES: The Lacey Act enacted as Pub. L. 97-79, Sec. 3, Nov. 16, 1981 (last amended 2003), codified in the US Code at 16 USC §§ 3371–3378. Available online at http://www.Thomas.gov.

UNITED STATES: Stolen Property Act (NSPA), codified as 18 U.S. Code §§ 2314 and 2315. Available online at http://www.Thomas.gov.

UNITED STATES: Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (FTTA), enacted 20 Oct. 1986 as Public Law N° 99-502, codified at 15 US Code 2781, 3701 and 3710. Available online at http://www.Thomas.gov.

UNITED STATES: National Park Service, September 2006, Servicewide Benefits-Sharing – Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Department of the Interior, U.S. found online at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/document.cfm?parkId=442&projectId=12515&documentID=16763.

(Other laws cited can be found in the CBD database of ABS measures at http://www.cbd.int/information/abs-measures.shtml)


< previous section  < index >  next section >