References and Bibliography for Part I


Reports of the Intergovernmental Committee on the Convention on Biological Diversity (ICCBD), (First meeting, 9 October 1993, Second, 2 July 1994). Looseleaf.

Beatson, J., and E. Schrage, eds. 2003. Cases, Materials and Texts on Unjustified Enrichment. Hart Publishing. Oxford.

Benavidez, P. 2004. ‘Philippines: Evolving Access and Benefit-sharing Regulations.’ Carrizosa, S., S. Brush, B. Wright and P. McGuire, eds., Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits: Lessons from Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity, pp. 153–175. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No.54. IUCN-ELC, in collaboration with BMZ, Germany and GRCP, University of California, Davis.

Bently, L and B Sherman. 2004. Intellectual Property Law. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Biber-Klemm, S. 2007. ‘Academic Research: Statement Concerning an Internationally Recognised Certificate’ In Feit U. and F. Wolff, eds. 2007. European Regional Meeting on an International Recognized Certificate of Origin/ Source/Legal Provenance. BFN, 2007. At page 109.

Bussani, M. and V.V. Palmer, 2003, Pure Economic Loss in Europe (Cambridge University Press)

Cabrera, J. and C. Lopez. 2007. Addressing the Problems of Access: Protecting Sources while Giving Users Certainty. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67/1. IUCN Environmental Law Centre, Bonn Germany.

Chon, M. and S. Ghosh. 2000. ‘Intellectual Property Needs and Expectations of Traditional Knowledge Holders,’ University at Buffalo, SUNY. Looseleaf.

Cohen, N. and E, McKendrick. 2005. Comparative Remedies for Breach of Contract. Hart Publishing, Oxford.

Convention on Biological Diversity. 2007a. ‘Analytical Study on Administrative and Judicial Remedies Available in Countries with Users Under Their Jurisdiction and in International Agreements.’ CBD Document: UNEP/CBD/WG-ABS/5/INF/3.

Convention on Biological Diversity. 2007b. ‘Report on the Legal Status of Genetic Resources in National Law, Including Property Law, Where Applicable, in a Selection of Countries’ UNEP/CBD/WG-ABS/5/5, 30 August 2007

Cotrell, J., A. Görres and K. Schlegelmilch. 2008. ‘Innovation, Technology and Employment – Impacts of Environmental Fiscal Reform and other Market-Based Instruments.’ In Environmental Policy and Law, Vol. 38, iss. 1.

The Crucible II Group. 2000. Seeding Solutions: Vol. 1 Policy Options for Genetic Resources (People, Plants, and Patents Revisited). IDRC Books.

The Crucible II Group. 2002. Seeding Solutions: Volume 2. Options for National Laws Governing Access to and Control Over Genetic Resources. IDRC Books.

Davis, K. 2007. ‘Certificating Biodiversity: Practical Issues for Ex Situ Collections.’ In Feit U. and F. Wolff, eds. 2007. European Regional Meeting on an International Recognized Certificate of Origin/Source/Legal Provenance. BFN, 2007. At page 133.

Demeth, P. 2007. ‘ABS in case of Microbial Resources – MOSAIC's Integrated Conveyance System.’ In Feit U. and F. Wolff, eds. 2007. European Regional Meeting on an International Recognized Certificate of Origin/Source/Legal Provenance. BFN, 2007. At page 124.

Dutfield, G. 2002. ‘Sharing the Benefits of Biodiversity – Is there a Role for the Patent System?’ The Journal of World Intellectual Property 5(6): 899–932. [CrossRef]

European Seed Association. 2005. ESA Position on the standard Material Transfer Agreement (sMTA) within the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. ESA_05.0427.4.

FAO (1998) The State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. (FAO)

Farnsworth, E.A. 2006. ‘Comparative Contract Law.’ Chapter 28 in Reimann and Zimmermann, 2006.

Fernández-Ugalde, J.C. 2007. ‘Tracking and Monitoring of International Flows of Genetic Resources: Why, How and, Is It Worth the Effort?’ In Ruiz, M. and I. Lapeña (eds.) 2007. A Moving Target: Monitoring the International Flow of Genetic Resources. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67, The ABS Series, Book 3.

Folsom, R.H., M.W. Gordon, J.A. Spanogle, 2004, International Business Transactions, 7th ed. (Thompson-West, West Nutshell Series) (This book provides a very simplified, but legally correct summary of the application of contract law in situations of trans-national sales of goods.)

Fowler, C., G. Hawtin, R. Ortiz, M. Iwanaga and J. Engels. 2004. ‘The Question of Derivatives – Promoting Use and Ensuring Availability of Non-proprietary Plant Genetic Resources.’ The Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(5): 641–663. [CrossRef]

Fowler, C., M. Smale and S. Gaiji. 2001. ‘Unequal Exchange? Recent Transfers of Agricultural Resources and their Implications for Developing Countries.’ Development Policy Review 19(2): 181–204. [CrossRef]

Frison, C. and T. Dedeurwaerdare. 2006. Infrastructures publiques et régulations sur l'Accès aux ressources génétiques et le Partage des Avantages qui découlent de leur utilisation pour l'innovation dans la recherche des sciences de la vie: Accès conservation et utilisation de la diversité biologique dans l'intérêt général. Service Public Fédéral Santé Publique, Sécurité de la Chaîne Alimentaire et Environnement, Belgium Environmental Directorate.

Furmston, M. 2001. Cheshire, Fifoot & Furmston's Law of Contract. Butterworths LexisNexis.

Glowka, L, F. Burhenne-Guilmin, H. Synge, J.A. McNeely and L. Gündling. 1994. A Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 30.

Glowka, L. 1998. A Guide to Developing National Legislative Frameworks to Determine Access to Genetic Resources. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 34.

Gollin, M. 2002. ‘Elements of commercial biodiversity prospecting agreements.’ Chapter 10 in Laird, S. 2002. Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: Equitable Partnerships in Practice. Earthscan.

Gordley, J., ed., 2001, Enforceability of Promises in European Contract Law. Cambridge University Press.

Gröger, A. 2007. ‘Botanic Gardens and the International Plant Exchange Network (IPEN) – a brief statement.’ In Feit U. and F. Wolff, eds. 2007. European Regional Meeting on an International Recognized Certificate of Origin/ Source/Legal Provenance. BFN, 2007. At page 121.

Hårstad, J. et al. 2005. Evaluation of GEF Support for Biosafety. GEF.

Holm-Müller, K., C. Richerzhagen and S. Täuber. 2005. Users of Genetic Resources in Germany. BFN-Skripten 126. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation.

Huber, P. 2006. ‘Comparative Sales Law.’ Chapter 29 in in Reimann and Zimmermann, 2006.

Jefferson, M. 1996. Restraint of Trade. John Wiley and Sons.

Jinnah, S and S. Jungcurt, 2009 ‘Could Access Requirements Stifle Your Research?’ Science, vol 323 2009.

Kieninger, E.M., ed. 2004. Security Rights in Moveable Property in European Private Law. Cambridge University Press.

Klimas, T. 2006. Comparative Contract Law: A Transystemic Approach with Emphasis on Continental Law. Carolina Academic Press.

Kötz, H. 1996. Europäisches Vertagsrecht (translation of vol 1: Weir, T., 1997, under title European Contract Law.)

Laird, S.A. 1999. Equitable Biodiversity Research Relationships in Practice: Written Agreements Between Communities and Researchers. Waterbury Center, VT: World Wildlife Federation.

Laird, S. and E. Lisinge. 1998. ‘Benefit-Sharing Case Studies: Ancistrocladus korupensis and Prunus Africana.’ CBD-COP-4, doc. UNEP/CBD/COP/4/Inf.25.

Latorre, F. 2005. Review of the Experience of Implementation by UK Stakeholders of Access and Benefit-sharing Arrangements under the Convention on Biological Diversity. DEFRA, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Lesser, W. 1992. Sustainable use of genetic resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity: exploring access and benefit-sharing issues. Convention on Biological Diversity.

Lettington, R. and D. Dogley. 2006. Commentary on the Development of the Republic of Seychelles Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing Bill. IPGRI.

Lord, R. A. 2007. Williston on Contracts 4th Ed. Thompson-West. Database updated November 2007

Martin, J. and C. Turner. 2006. The Comprehensive Guide to Constitutional and Administrative Law. Hodder Arnold, UK.

Marsh, P.D.V. 1994. Comparative Contract Law: England, France, Germany. Gower Publishing, Hampshire.

Macneil, I. 1980. The New Social Contract: An Inquiry into Modern Contractual Relations. Yale University Press, United States.

Mgbeoji, I. 2006a. Global Biopiracy: Patents, Plants and Indigenous Knowledge. Cornell University Press. New York.

Mgbeoji, I. 2006b. ‘Legal Case Studies: Analysis of Four Claims of ‘Unauthorised Access and Misappropriation of Genetic Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge’’, reprinted in Young, et al. 2007, as Chapter 10.

Moore, G. and W. Tymowsky, Explanatory Guide to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 57. IUCN Environmental Law Centre.

Moore, S. and G. Moore. Undated. ‘Methods of Expressing Acceptance of the Terms And Conditions of MTAs: Shrink-Wrap and Click-Wrap Agreements.’ FAO Background Study Paper No. 26. Paper prepared for the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Acting as Interim Committee for the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food And Agriculture.

Morris, P and R Therivel. 2001. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment. Routledge.

McClean, D. 2002. International Co-operation in Civil and Criminal Matters. Oxford University Press.

Neumayer, K. 1999. ‘Contracting Subject to Standard Terms and Conditions’ In Internatinal Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, vol. VII, ch. 13.

Nillson, M. and K. Eckerberg. 2007. Environmental Policy Integration in Practice: Shaping Institutions for Learning. Earthscan.

Oldam, P. 2004. ‘Global Status and Trends in Intellectual Property Claims.’ Genomics, Proteonomics and Biotechnology. CESAGEN.

Sampath, P.G., 2005, Regulating Bioprospecting: Institutions for Drug Research, Access and Benefit-sharing (UNU Press)

Sefton-Green, R. (ed.) 2005. Mistake, Fraud and Duties to Inform in European Contract Law. Cambridge University Press.

Reimann, M. and R. Zimmermann. 2006. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law. Oxford University Press.

Ruiz, M. and I. Lapeña (eds.) 2007. A Moving Target: Monitoring the International Flow of Genetic Resources. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67, The ABS Series, Book 3.

Schindel, David, et al, 2008, ‘Submission of Views from an International Workshop on Access and Benefit Sharing in Non-Commercial Biodiversity Research’, submitted to the CBD Group of Technical and Legal Experts on Compliance in the context of the International Regime on Access and Benefit-sharing (January, 2009, Tokyo)

Sefton-Green, R., ed. 2001. Mistake, Fraud and Duties to Inform in European Contract Law. Cambridge University Press.

Shotton, R. 1999. Use of Property Rights in Fisheries Management (Proceedings of the FishRights99 Conference, Freemantle, Western Australia, 11–19 November 1999) FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 404/1.

Sinnott, J. 1998. A Practical Guide to Document Authentication. Oceana Publications Inc. Dobbs Ferry, NY, USA.

Swiderska, K. 2001. Stakeholder Participation in Policy on Access to Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Benefit Sharing. Case studies and recommendations. Biodiversity and Livelihoods Issues, No 4. IIED.

Tallon, D. 1983. ‘Civil Law and Commercial Law,’ in International Encyclopedia of Coparative Law. Vol VIII, ch 2.

ten Kate, K., L. Touche, A Collis, and A Wells. 1998. ‘Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing in a Protected Area: An Agreement Between Yellowstone National Park and the Diversa Corporation.’ Case study 6.5, in Laird, S. ed. 2002. Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: Equitable Partnerships in Practice. Earthscan.

Ten Kate, K. and S. Laird. 2002. The commercial Use of Biodiversity. Earthscan.

Tobin, B. 2002. ‘Biodiversity prospecting contracts: the search for equitable agreements.’ Chapter 9 in Laird, S., ed. Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: Equitable Partnerships in Practice. Earthscan.

Tvedt, M.W. and T.R. Young. 2007. Beyond Access: Exploring Implementation of the Fair and Equitable Sharing Commitment in the CBD. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 67/1. IUCN Environmental Law Centre, Bonn Germany.

Tvedt, M.W. 2005. ‘How Will a Substantive Patent Law Treaty Affect the Public Domain for Genetic Resources and Biological Material?’ The Journal of World Intellectual Property 8(3): 311–344. [CrossRef]

UNIDROIT (ed.) 2004. UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts.

UNCTAD, Draft concept note: Practical Guidelines for Equitable Sharing of Benefits of Biological Resources in BioTrade Activities, 3 March 2007. (Discussion in this book is based on the 31 January 2007 draft (not yet available for citation). It is discussed here with permission from the BioTrade initiative.)

Van Erp, S. 2006. ‘Comparative Property Law.’ Chapter 32 in Reimann and Zimmermann, 2006.

Visser, D. 2006. ‘Unjustified Enrichment in Comparative Perspective.’ Chapter 30 in Reimann and Zimmermann, 2006.

Visser't Hooft, W.M. 2002. Japanese Contract and Anti-Trust Law. UK.

Verolme, H.J.H. et al. 1999. ‘Access to Genetic Resources: An Evaluation of the Development and Implementation of Recent Regulation and Access Agreements.’ Environmental Policy Studies Workshop of the School Of International And Public Affairs, Columbia University.

WIPO. 2004. Study No. 3, WIPO Technical Study on Patent Disclosure Requirements Related to Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge. WIPO Publication No. 786(E).

Young, T. 2006a. ‘An Analysis of Claims of Unauthorized Access and Misappropriation of Genetic Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge,’ distributed at AHWG-ABS-4 as UNEP/CBD/WG-ABS/4/INF/6.

Young, T. 2006b. ‘Innovative financial and incentive mechanisms for promoting the conservation of High Conservation Value Forests’ Forest Stewardship Council.

Young, T. 2006c. ‘An Implementation Perspective on International Law of Genetic Resources: Incentive, Consistency and Effective Operation.’ Yearbook of International Environmental Law 15: 3–93 (anchor article). Oxford U Press.

Young T. 2005. National and Regional Legislation for Promotion and Support to the Prevention, Control and Eradication of Invasive Species. The World Bank.

Young, T. 1993. ‘Seychelles: Legislation and Institutions for Marine and Terrestrial Biodiversity Conservation and National Parks in the Seychelles.’ FAO.

Zimmermann, R. and S. Whitaker. 2000. Good Faith in European Contract Law. Cambridge University Press.

Zimmermann, R. 2005. ‘Consumer Contract Law: The German Experience’, 58 Current Legal Problems 455.


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