Adams, J.S. and McShane, T.O. 1992. The Myth of Wild Africa: Conservation without illusion. London, UK: W.W. Norton and Co. [link]

Barnes, 2003. “Wilderness as contested ground”. In Harmon and Putney, op. cit.

Barrow, E. and Pathak, N. 2005. “Conserving ‘unprotected’ protected areas – communities can and do conserve landscapes of all sorts”. In Brown et al., op. cit.

Beltrán, J. 2000. Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Protected Areas: Principles, Guidelines and Case Studies. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 4. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN and WWF International. [link]

Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional ecological knowledge and resource management. Philadelphia, USA: Taylor & Francis. [link]

Bhagwat, S. and Rutte, C. 2006. “Sacred Groves: potential for biodiversity management”. Frontiers of Ecology and the Environment 4(10): 519–524. [CrossRef]

Boucher, C. 2002a. Digging our Roots: the Chamare Museum Frescoes. Malawi: KuNgoni.

Boucher, C. 2002b. The Gospel Seed: culture and faith in Malawi as expressed in the Misso Banner. Malawi: KuNgoni.

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Kothari, A. and Oviedo, G. 2004. Indigenous and Local Communities and Protected Areas: Towards Equity and Enhanced Conservation. Guidance on policy and practice for Co-managed Protected Areas and Community Conserved Areas. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 11. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. [link]

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., MacDonald, K.I. and Maffi, L. (Eds). 2004. “History, Culture and Conservation”. Policy Matters 13. IUCN CEESP. [link]

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Pimbert, M., Favar, M.T., Kothari, A. and Renard, Y. 2004. Sharing Power: Learning-by-doing in Co-management of Natural Resources throughout the World. CENESTA, Tehran, Iran: IIED and IUCN/CEESP/CMWG. [link]

Brown, J., Mitchell, N. and Beresford, M. (Eds). 2005. The Protected Landscape Approach: Linking Nature, Culture and Community. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. [link]

Bryceson, D.F and Fonseca, F. 2005. “Risking death for survival: peasant responses to hunger and HIV/AIDS”. Paper presented at the International Conference on HIV/AIDS, IFPRI South Africa 14–16 April 2005, Durban SA. [link]

Buckles, D. (Ed.) 1999. Cultivating Peace: conflict and collaboration in natural resource management. International Development Research Centre (IDRC)/World Bank Institute. [link]

Chape, S., Harrison, J., Spalding, M. and Lysenko, I. 2005. “Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets”. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 360: 443–455. [CrossRef]

Chape, S., Blyth, S., Fish, L., Fox, P. and Spalding, M. (Compilers). 2003. 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN and UNEP-WCMC. [link]

Chatterjee, S.,. Gokhale, Y., Malhotra, K.C. and Srivastava, S. 2004. “Sacred Groves in India: an overview”. In Dudley et al., op. cit. [link]

Colchester, M. and Ferrari, M.F. 2007. Making FPIC – free, prior and informed consent work: challenges and prospects for Indigenous Peoples. Moreton-in-Marsh, UK: Forest People Programme. [link]

Colfer, C.J.P. 1995. Who counts most in sustainable forest management? CIFOR Working Paper no.7.–07.pdf.

Cordell, J. 1992. “Who owns the land? Indigenous involvement in Australian Protected Areas”. In Kempf, 1992. op. cit.

Cunningham, A.B. 2000. Applied Ethnobotany: people, wild plant use and conservation. People and Plants Conservation Series. London, UK: Earthscan. [link]

De Lacy, T. and Lawson, B. 1997. “The Uluru/Kakadu model: Joint management of Aboriginal-owned national parks in Australia”. In Stevens, 1997, op. cit.

Drobyshev, Yu. I., Bazha, S.N., Gunin, P.D., Dugarjav, Ch. and Prischepa, A.V. 2007. “The role of sacred objects in nature conservation of the Baikal Lake basin”. UNESCO, 2007, op. cit.

Dudley, N., Higgins-Zogib L. and Mansourian, S. 2005. “Beyond Belief, Linking faiths and protected areas to support biodiversity conservation”. A research report by WWF, Equilibrium and The Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC). Available at:

Eade, D. 2002. Development and Culture. London, UK: Oxfam. [link]

Edwards, J. and Palmer, M. 1997. Holy ground: the guide to faith and ecology. Northamptonshire, UK: Pilkington Press. [link]

Elias, D. 2003. “Sacred sites in the Tanami Desert, Central Australia”. In UNESCO, 2003b, op. cit.

FBD. 2006. Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania: Facts and Figures. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Forest and Beekeeping Division, Ministry Natural Resources and Tourism. [link]

FPP. 2004. “Indigenous peoples' right to free prior and informed consent and the World Bank's Extractive Industries Review: An overview”.

Gilligan, B. 2006. The National Reserve System Programme 2006 Evaluation. Canberra, Australia: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Githitho, A. 2003. “The sacred Mijikenda Kaya forests of coastal Kenya and biodiversity conservation”. In UNESCO, 2003b, op. cit. [link]

Githitho, A. 2006. “The sacred Mjiikenda Kayas of coastal Kenya: evolving management principles and guidelines”. In UNESCO, 2006, op. cit.

Gokhale, Y. 2003. “Communicating importance of sacred groves to broader audience for conservation of biocultural heritage”. Presented at the CSVPA session at the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress.

Grim, J. (Ed.) 2001. Indigenous Traditions and Ecology: The Interbeing of Cosmology and Community. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard CSWR. [link]

Grimble, R., Chan, M.K., Aglionby, J. and Quan, J. 1995. Trees and Trade-offs; a stakeholder approach to natural resources management. Gatekeeper Series 52. London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). [link]

Harmon, D. and Putney, A. 2003. The Full Value of Parks: From Economics to the Intangible. Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. [link]

Harmsworth, G. 1998. “Indigenous values and GIS: a method and a framework”. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 6(3). [link]

IFAD. 2005. “Free prior informed consent and beyond: the experience of IFAD”. Report from an international workshop on methodologies regarding free prior and informed consent and indigenous peoples. New York, 17–19 January 2005, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Secretariat of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. [link]

ILO. 1989. Convention (No. 169) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries Adopted on 27 June 1989 by the General Conference of the International Labour Organization at its seventy-sixth session – entry into force 5 September 1991.

IUCN. 1994. Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN and Cambridge University Press. [link]

IUCN. 2008. Guidelines for Applying Protected Areas Management Categories. WCPA Draft for discussion. [link]

Iwatsuki, K. 2006. “Sacred Forests in temples and shrines of Japan”. In UNESCO, 2006, op. cit.

Iwatsuki, K. 2007. Sacred sites and zoning of the Japanese Archipelago. UNESCO, 2007, op. cit.

Jaireth, H. and Smyth, D. (Eds) 2003. Innovative governance: Indigenous peoples, local communities and protected areas. New Delhi, India: Ane Books. [link]

Kempf, E. (Ed.) 1992. The Law of the Mother: Protecting indigenous peoples in protected areas. San Francisco, CA, USA: Sierra Club. [link]

Khalid, F. and Thani, A.K. 2007. Teacher's Guide Book for Islamic Environmental Education Promoting conservation of Misali Island – Pemba, Tanzania. Birmingham, UK: Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Science.

Khamaganova, E. 2007. “Sacred Sites: Our pain, hope and strength”. Pachamama: a traditional knowledge newsletter of the Convention on Biological Diversity 1(1). [link]

Khamaganova, E. 2005. “Protection of sacred sites: global framework and local actions. Lessons from Lake Baikal and the Altai Mountains of the Russian Federation”. In UNESCO, 2006, op. cit.

Koohafkan, P. and Boerma, D. 2006. “Conservation and sustainable management of Globally Important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage (GIAHS)”. In UNESCO, 2006, op. cit.

Laird, S.A. 2000. Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: equitable partnerships in practice. People and Plants Conservation Series. London, UK: Earthscan. [link]

MacDonald, K.I. 2004. “Conservation as cultural and political practice”. In Borrini-Feyerabend, MacDonald and Maffi, 2004, op. cit.

Maffi, L. 2004. “Conservation and the ‘two cultures’– bridging the gap”. In Borrini-Feyerabend, MacDonald and Maffi, 2004, op. cit.

Malhotra, K.C., Gokhale, Y., Chatterjee, S. and Srivastava, S. 2001. SCOPE Committee Publication. New Delhi and Bhopal, India: Indian National Science Academy and Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya.

Mallarach, J. and Papayannis, T. (Eds). 2007. Protected Areas and Spirituality. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the Delos Initiative, Montserrat, 23–26 November 2006. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN and Montserrat, Spain: Publicaciones de l'Abadia de Montserrat. [link]

Martin, G.J. 2003. Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual. People and Plants Conservation Series. London, UK: Earthscan. [link]

Merkushina, T.P. 2007. “Role of the specially protected areas of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra in preservation of the local sacred natural-historic sites”. UNESCO, 2007, op. cit.

Mgumia, F.H. and Oba, G. 2003. “Potential role of sacred groves in biodiversity conservation in Tanzania”. Environmental Conservation 30(3): 259–265. [CrossRef]

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. [link]

Motonaka, M. 2006. “Sacred sites and pilgrim routes in the Kii mountain range”. In UNESCO, 2006, op. cit.

NMK. 2004. “Sacred Mijikenda Kayas: World Heritage Nomination Dossier”. Kenya: National Museums of Kenya.

Ormsby, A. 2007. “Cultural and Conservation Values of Sacred Forests in Ghana”. Paper presented at the Sacred Species and Sites meeting, Cambridge Centre for Landscape and People, 23–28 September, 2007, Cambridge, UK.

Otegui, M. 2003. “The Wixarika/Huichol Sacred Natural Site in the Chihuahuan Desert of San Luis Potosi”. In Harmon and Putney, 2003, op. cit.

Ott, M. 2000. African theology in images. Kachere Monograph No. 12. Blantyre, Malawi: Christian Literature Association in Malawi. [link]

Oviedo, G. 2001. “Notes on the Panel's Presentations and Discussions”. Symposium on the Importance of the Protection of Sacred Natural Sites (SNS) for the Conservation of Biodiversity, Mexico City, June 12, 2001. Gland, Switzerland: WWF International.

Oviedo, G., Maffi, l. and Larsen, P.B. 2000. Indigenous and traditional peoples of the world and ecoregion conservation: an integrated approach to conserving the World's biological diversity and companion map. Indigenous and traditional peoples in the global 200 ecoregions. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International and Canada: Terralingua. [link]

Oviedo, G. and Jeanrenaud, S. 2006. “Protecting Sacred Natural Sites of Indigenous and Traditional Peoples”. In Mallarach and Papayannis, 2007, op. cit.

Palmer, M and Finlay, V. 2003. Faith in Conservation. New Approaches to Religions and the Environment. Washington, DC, USA: The World Bank. [link]

Papayannis, T. and Mallarach, J. (Eds). 2008. Proceedings of the Second Delos Workshop, Ouranoupolis, Greece, October 2008. IUCN and Med-INA, Athens, Greece.

Phillips, A. 2003. “Turning ideas on their head: the new paradigm for protected areas”. The George Wright Forum 20(2). [link]

Phillips, A. 2005. “Landscape as a meeting ground: Category V Protected Landscapes/Seascapes and World Heritage Cultural Landscapes”. In Brown et al. op. cit.

Pumarejo, A. and Berges, G. 2005. Shamanism and the Forces of Nature: An analysis of the cosmovision of indigenous peoples and their sacred sites. Proceedings of the Second International Nature Conference, April 27–30, 2005. Music for the World, WWF & IUCN.

Rabetaliana, H. and Schachenmann, P. 2003. “Past, present and future of cultural and sacred sites in Madagascar. The Importance of Sacred Natural Sites for Biodiversity Conservation”. In UNESCO, 2003b, op. cit.

Ramakrishnan, P.S., Saxena, K.G. and Chandrashekara, U.M. (Eds). 1998. Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management. New Delhi, India: UNESCO and Oxford and IBH Publishers. [link]

Ramakrishnan, P.S. 2003. “Conserving the sacred: The protective impulse and the origins of modern protected areas”. In Harmon and Putney, op. cit.

Rambaldi, G., Corbett, J., Olson, R., McCall, M., Muchemi, J., Kwaku Kyem, P., Weiner, D. and Chambers, R. (Eds). 2006. Mapping for Change: practice, technologies and communication. Participatory Learning and Action no 54. London, UK: IIED and Wageningen, The Netherlands: CTA.

Rambaldi, G., Tuivanuavou, S., Namata, P., Vanualailai, P., Rupeni, S. and Rupeni, E. 2006. “Resource Use, Development Planning, and Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in Fiji”. In Rambaldi et al., op. cit. pp.28–35. [link]

Ramírez, R. 1999. “Stakeholder analysis and conflict management”. In Buckles, op. cit.

Rose, D.B. 2002. “Sacred site, ancestral clearing, and environmental ethics”. In Harvey, G., 2002, Readings in Indigenous Religions. London, UK: Continuum. [link]

Rössler, M. 2003. “World Heritage Sites: Toward linking the tangible and the intangible”. In Harmon and Putney, op. cit.

Sandwith, T., Shine, C., Hamilton, L. and Sheppard, D. 2001. Reprinted in 2003. Transboundary Protected Areas for Peace and Cooperation. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.7. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. [link]

Secaira, E. and Molina, M.E. 2005. Planning for the Conservation of Sacred Sites in the Context of Protected Areas: An adaptation of a Methodology and lessons from its application in the Highlands of Western Guatemala. The Nature Conservancy.

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2004. Akwé: Kon Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment regarding Developments Proposed to Take Place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands and Waters Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities. (CBD Guidelines Series). Montreal, Canada: CBD.

Shepherd, G. 2003. “Operationalising the ecosystem approach”. Presentation to SBSTTA, Nov 2003.

Shepherd, G. 2004. The Ecosystem Approach: Five Steps to Implementation. IUCN Ecosystem Management Series No 3. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. [link]

Sindiga, I. 1996. “International Tourism in Kenya and the marginalisation of the Washwhili”. Tourism Management 17(6): 425–432. [CrossRef]

Soutter, R., Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y., Smith, J. and Rana, D. 2003. “Recognising the contribution of Sacred Natural Sites for biodiversity conservation”. Paper delivered in Workshop Stream II – Building Broader Support for Protected Areas. Vth IUCN World Parks Congress.

Stevens, S. 1997. Conservation through Cultural Survival: Indigenous people and protected areas. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. [link]

Sukhbaatar, H. 2002. Sacred Sites in Mongolia. ARC, WWF and World Bank. [link]

Szabo, S. and Smyth, D. 2003. “Indigenous protected areas in Australia: incorporating indigenous owned land into Australia's national system of protected areas”. In Jaireth and Smyth, op. cit.

Taylor and Geffin, 2003. “Battling religions in parks and forest reserves: Facing religion in conflicts over protected places”. In Harmon, and Putney, op. cit. [link]

Te Heuheu, T. 2006. “Culture Landscapes and the principle of guardianship”. In UNESCO, 2006, op. cit.

Thomas, L. and Middleton, J. 2003. Guidelines for Management and Planning of Protected Areas. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.10. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. [link]

Tiwari, B.K., Barik, S.K. and Tripathi, R.S. 1998. “Biodiversity Value, Status, and Strategies for Conservation of Sacred Groves of Meghalaya, India”. Ecosystem Health 4(1): 20–32. [CrossRef]

Tucker, M.E. and Grim, J. 2001. “Series Foreword”. In Grim, J. (Ed. ), 2001, op. cit.

UNESCO. 2003a. Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. Convention text available at [last accessed at 20–09–2006].

UNESCO. 2003b. (Lee, C. and Schaaf, T. (Eds).) Proceedings of an International workshop on the importance of sacred natural sites for biodiversity conservation. Kunming and Xishuangbanna Biosphere Reserve, People's Republic of China, 17–20 February 2003. Paris, France: UNESCO. [link]

UNESCO. 2006. (Lee, C. and Schaaf, T. (Eds).) Proceedings of UNESCO-IUCN ‘Conserving Cultural and Biological Diversity: The Role of Sacred Natural Sites and Cultural Landscapes’, Tokyo, Japan (30 May–2 June 2005). [link]

UNESCO. 2007. (Jayakumar, R., Kim, E. and Karolyi, B. (Eds).) The protection of sacred natural sites; importance for biodiversity conservation. Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of the UNESCO-MAB East Asian Biosphere Reserve Network, Terelj National Park Mongolia, 1–5 September 2007. [link]

Ver Beek, K.A. 2002. “Spirituality: a development taboo”. In Eade, op. cit. [link]

Verhelst, T. and Tyndale, W. 2002. “Cultures, spirituality and development”. In Eade, op. cit. [link]

Verschuuren, B. 2006. “An overview of cultural and spiritual values in ecosystem management and conservation strategies”. Paper contributed to the International Conference on Endogenous Development and Biocultural Diversity, October 2006, Geneva, Switzerland. (Available at:

Verschuuren, B. 2008. “Power on this land. Sacred Sites management at Dhimurru Indigenous Protected Area in northeast Arnhem Land, Australia”. Papayannis and Mallarach, 2008, op. cit.

Wells, M., Brandon, K. with Hannah, L. 1992. Linking protected area management with local communities. Washington DC, USA: World Bank, World Wildlife Fund, US Agency for International Development. [link]

West, P.C. and Brechin, S.R. (Eds). 1991. Resident peoples and national parks: Social dilemmas and strategies in international conservation. Tuscon, AZ, USA: University of Arizona Press. [link]

Wickramsinghe, A. 2005. “Adam's Peak Sacred Mountain Forest”. In UNESCO, 2003b, op. cit.

Wickramsinghe, A. 2005. “Adam's Peak in the cultural landscape of Sri Lanka: evidence of an eco-cultural basis for conservation”. In UNESCO, 2006, op. cit.

Wild, R.G. and J. Mutebi. 1996. Conservation through community use of plant resources: establishing collaborative management at Bwindi Impenetrable and Mgahinga Gorilla National Parks, Uganda. Working Paper 6, People and Plants Programme, UNESCO, Kew, WWF. [link]

Wild, R.G., Millinga, A. and Robinson, J.M. 2007. Microfinance and environmental sustainability at selected sites in Tanzania and Kenya. Unpublished report for WWF-UK and LTS International. [link]

Wiley, E.A. 2003. Community-based land tenure management: Questions and answers about Tanzania's new land management act. Issue paper no. 120. Drylands Programme. London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). [link]

Xiaoxin, H. 2007. Taking Care of Nature: Building up the Daoist Ecology Temple by our own hands: The Second Workshop on Daoism and Conservation, July 2007, Taibaishan, China, ARC. [link]

< previous section  < index >  next section >