References

Adams, J.E. 1994. Last of the Caribbean whalemen. Natural History 103(11), 64–72.

Affronte, M., Scaravelli, D., and Stanzani, L.A. 1999. Presenza storica del capodoglio Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1798 in Adriatico. IV Convegno nazionale sui cetacei e sulle tartarughe marine, 11–12 November 1999. Milan, Italy.

Aguilar, A. 2000. Population biology, conservation threats and status of Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 17–26.

Aguilar, A., Forcada, J., Borrell, A., Silvani, L., Grau, G., Gazo, M., Calzada, N., Pastor, T., Badosa, E., Arderiu, A., and Samaranch, R. 1994. Inventario de cetáceos mediterráneos ibéricos: status y problemas de conservación. Unpublished Report, University of Barcelona, Spain.

Ahmad, M.F. 1994. The wildlife of the Indus River and allied areas. Records of the Zoological Survey of Pakistan 12, 1–9.

Ahmed, B. 2000. Water development and the status of the shushuk (Platanista gangetica) in southeast Bangladesh. Pp.62–66 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland.

Akamatsu, T., Wang Ding, Wang, K., and Wei, Z. 2001. Comparison between visual and passive acoustic detection of finless porpoises in the Yangtze River, China. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 109, 1723–1727. [CrossRef]

Alcala, A.C. and Vusse, F.J.V. 1993. The role of government in coastal management. Pp.12–19 in: Community Management and Common Property of Coastal Fisheries in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts, Methods and Experiences (ed. R.S. Pomeroy). ICLARM, Manila, Philippines.

Alling, A.K. and Whitehead, H.P. 1987. A preliminary study of the status of white-beaked dolphins, Lagenorhynchus albirostris, and other small cetaceans off the coast of Labrador. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101, 131–135.

Alverson, F.G. 1991. Tuna purse seine and gill/drift net fisheries in the oceans of the world and their relationship to tuna-dolphin, tuna-whale and tuna-whale shark associated schools. Unpublished Report Submitted to the CANAINPES Seccion Especializada en Pesca de Atun Programa Atun-delfin, Camara Nacional de la Industria Pesquera. 110pp.

Alves-Júnior, T.T., Ávila, F.J.C., de Oliveira, J.A., Furtado-Neto, M.A.A., and Monteiro-Neto, C. 1996. Registros de cetáceos para o litoral do estado do Ceará, Brasil. Arq. Ciênc. Mar. Fortaleza 30(1–2), 79–92.

Andersen, M. and Kinze, C.C. 1999. Annotated checklist and identification key to the whales, dolphins, and porpoises (order Cetacea) of Thailand and adjacent waters. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 47, 27–62.

Andersen, M. and Kinze, C.C. 2000. Review and new records of the marine mammals and sea turtles of Indochinese waters. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 48, 177–184.

Andrade, A., Pinedo, M.C., and Pereira, J. Jr. 1997. Franciscanas from southern Brazil, Uruguay and North Argentina coasts: are one or more ecological stocks? Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 669–673.

André, M., Ramos, A.G., and Lopez-Jurado, L.F. 1994. Sperm whale acoustic survey off the Canary Islands, in an area of heavy maritime traffic: preliminary results. European Research on Cetaceans 8, 65.

Andrianarivelo, N. 2001. “Essai d'évaluation de l'importance de la pêche aux dauphins dans la région d'Anakao (sud ouest de Madagascar)”. Unpublished D.E.A. thesis. Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines (IHSM), Université de Toliara, Madagascar.

Andrianov, D.P. and Bulgakova, V. 1996. The factors determining the abundance of the Black Sea anchovy. Pp.13–15 in: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Marine Mammals of the Black Sea, 27–30 June 1994, Istanbul, Turkey (ed. B. Özturk). United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Angliss, R.P., DeMaster, D.P., and Lopez, A.L. 2001. Alaska marine mammal stock assessments, 2001. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-124. 203pp.

Anon. 1992. Japan progress report on cetacean research, June 1990 to March 1991. Report of the International Whaling Commission 42, 352–356.

Anon. 1997. Mamíferos aquáticos do Brasil: plano de ação. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis, Brasília.

Anon. 2001. Bahamas marine mammal stranding event of 15–16 March 2000. Joint Interim Report, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce; U.S. Navy. 59pp.

Aragones, L.V., Jefferson, T.A., and Marsh, H. 1997. Marine mammal survey techniques applicable in developing countries. Asian Marine Biology 14, 15–39.

Ariz, X., Delgado, A., Fonteneau, A., Gonzales Costas, F., and Pallares, P. 1992. Logs and tunas in the eastern tropical Atlantic. A review of present knowledge and uncertainties. Unpublished Working Document for the IATTC Working Group, La Jolla, CA, USA. 51pp.

Ashford, J.R., Rubilar, P.S., and Martin, A.R. 1996. Interactions between cetaceans and longline fishery operations around South Georgia. Marine Mammal Science 12, 452–457.

Aula, I., Braunschweiler, H., and Malin, I. 1995. The watershed flux of mercury examined with indicators in the Tucurui reservoir in Para, Brazil. The Science of the Total Environment 175, 97–107. [CrossRef]

Avise, J.C. 1989. A role for molecular genetics in the recognition and conservation of endangered species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4, 279–281. [CrossRef]

Aznar, F.J., Raga, J.A., Corcuera, J., and Monzón, F. 1995. Helminths as biological tags for franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae) in Argentinian and Uruguayan waters. Mammalia 59, 427–435.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B.(compilers and eds.) 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Bairagi, S.P. 1999. Oil bait fishery of catfishes in Brahmaputra River affecting river dolphin populations in Assam, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96, 424–426.

Baird, I.G. and Mounsouphom, B. 1997. Distribution, mortality, diet and conservation of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris Gray) in Lao PDR. Asian Marine Biology 14, 41–48.

Baird, R.W. 2000. The killer whale: foraging specializations and group hunting. Pp.127–153 in: Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales (eds. J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 433pp.

Baird, S.J. and Bradford, E. 2000. Estimation of Hector's dolphin bycatch from inshore fisheries, 1997/98 fishing year. Published Client Report on Contract 3024, Conservation Services Levy. Available: www.doc.govt.nz/cons/scires/csl.pdf.

Baker, C.S., Dalebout, M.L., Lento, G.M., and Funahashi, N. 2002. Gray whale products sold in commercial markets along the Pacific coast of Japan. Marine Mammal Science 18, 295–300.

Baker, C.S., Flórez-González, L., Abernethy, B., Rosenbaum, H.C., Slade, R.W., Capella, J., and Bannister, J.L. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA variation and maternal gene flow among humpback whales of the Southern Hemisphere. Marine Mammal Science 14, 721–737.

Baker, C.S., Lento, G.M., Cipriano, F., and Palumbi, S.R. 2000. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267, 1–9.

Balcomb, K.C. III and Claridge, D.E. 2001. A mass stranding of cetaceans caused by naval sonar in the Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 8(2), 1–12.

Baldwin, R. 1995. Whales and Dolphins of the United Arab Emirates. Park House, Somerset, UK. 111pp.

Bannister, J.L. 1994. Continued increase in humpback whales off Western Australia. Report of the International Whaling Commission 44, 309–310.

Bannister, J.L. 2001. Status of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) off Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 103–110.

Bannister, J.L., Kemper, C.M., and Warneke, R.M. 1996. The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans. Canberra Printing Services, Canberra.

Bard, S.M. 1999. Global transport of anthropogenic contaminants and the consequences for the Arctic marine ecosystem. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38, 356–379. [CrossRef]

Barlow, J., Baird, R.W., Heyning, J.E., Wynne, K., Manville II, A.M., Lowry, L.F., Hanan, D., Sease, J., and Burkanov, V.N. 1994. A review of cetacean and pinniped mortality in coastal fisheries along the west coast of the USA and Canada and the east coast of the Russian Federation. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 405–425.

Barlow, J. and Cameron, G.A. 1999. Field experiments show that acoustic pingers reduce marine mammal bycatch in the California drift gillnet fishery. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/51/SM2, Cambridge, UK.

Barlow, J., Gerrodette, T., and Silber, G. 1997. First estimates of vaquita abundance. Marine Mammal Science 13, 44–58.

Barlow, J. and Hannan, D. 1995. An assessment of the status of the harbor porpoise in central California. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 123–140.

Barnes, R.H. 1991. Indigenous whaling and porpoise hunting in Indonesia. Pp.99–106 in: Cetaceans and Cetacean Research in the Indian Ocean Sanctuary (eds. S. Leatherwood and G.P. Donovan). UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report 3, Nairobi, Kenya.

Barnes, R.H. 1996. Sea Hunters of Indonesia: Fishers and Weavers of Lamalera. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Barthem, R. and Goulding, M. 1997. The Catfish Connection. Ecology, Migration and Conservation of Amazonian Predators. Columbia University Press, New York.

Bassoi, M, Secchi, E.R., Dalla Rosa, L., Zerbini, A.N., and Jana, D. 1996. Interactions between cetaceans and fisheries of the South and Southeast Brazilian fleet. Resumenes de la VII Reunión de trabajo de Especialistas en Mamíferos Acuáticos de América del Sur. Viña del Mar. 121pp.[Abstracts].

Baumgartner, M.F. 1997. The distribution of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) with respect to the physiography of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 13, 614–638.

Bearzi, G. 2000. First report of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) death following penetration of a biopsy dart. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 217–221.

Bearzi, G. 2001. What threatens coastal dolphin populations in the Mediterranean Sea? Insight from interdisciplinary research in key areas. Proceedings of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation Annual Meeting. 30 May–2 June, 2000. White Point, Nova Scotia (Canada). p.10.

Bearzi, G. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 1995. A comparison of the present occurrence of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, in the Kvarnerić (northern Adriatic Sea). Annales (Annals for Istrian and Mediterranean Studies) 7, 61–68.

Bearzi, G., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., and Politi, E. 1997. Social ecology of bottlenose dolphins in the Kvarnerić (northern Adriatic Sea). Marine Mammal Science 13, 650–668.

Bearzi, G., Politi, E., and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 1999. Diurnal behavior of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in the Kvarnerić (northern Adriatic Sea). Marine Mammal Science 15, 1065–1097.

Bearzi, G., Politi, E., Fortuna, C.M., Mel, L., and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 2001. An overview of cetacean sighting data from the northern Adriatic Sea: 1987–1999. European Research on Cetaceans 14, 356–361.

Beasley, I., Arnold, P., and Heinsohn, G. 2002a. Geographical variation in skull morphology of the Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris (Owen in Gray, 1866). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 15–34.

Beasley, I., Chooruk, S., and Piwpong, N. 2002b. The status of the Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, in Songkhla Lake, southern Thailand. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 75–83.

Beltrán, S. 1998. “Captura accidental de Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853) na pescaria artesanal do Estuário Amazônico”. M.Sc. thesis. Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus, Brasil. 100pp.[In Portuguese].

Beltrán-Pedreros, S. and da Silva, V.M.F. 1998. Captura acidental de Sotalia fluviatilis, no estuario Amazonico. Abstracts 8ª Reuniao de Trabalho de Especialistas em Mamiferos Aquáticos da América do Sul, Olinda, Brasil p.23.

Berggren, P. 1994. Bycatches of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Swedish Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic seas; 1973–1993. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 211–215.

Berggren, P. and Arrhenius, F. 1995. Sightings of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Swedish waters before 1990. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 99–107.

Berggren, P., Wade, P.R., Carlström, J., and Read, A.J. 2002. Potential limits to anthropogenic mortality for harbour porpoises in the Baltic region. Biological Conservation 103, 313–322. [CrossRef]

Berkes, F. 1977. Turkish dolphin fisheries. Oryx 14, 163–167.

Bernard, H.J. and Reilly, S.B. 1999. Pilot whales Globicephala Lesson, 1828. Pp.245–279 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Bertozzi, C. and Zerbini, A.N. 2000. Capturas acidentais de franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, na pesca artesanal de Praia Grande, São Paulo, Brasil. IV Workshop para a Coordenação da Pesquisa e Conservação da Franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, no Atlântico Sul Ocidental, Technical Paper No. 22.

Bérubé, M., Aguilar, A., Dendanto, D., Larsen, F., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Sears, R., Sigurjónsson, J., Urbán-R, J., and Palsbøll, P.J. 1998. Population genetic structure of North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Cortez fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus 1758): analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear foci. Molecular Ecology 7, 585–599. [CrossRef]

Best, P.B. 1988. Right whales at Tristan da Cunha – a clue to the ‘non-recovery’ of depleted species? Biological Conservation 46, 23–51. [CrossRef]

Best, P.B. 1989. Some comments on the BIWS catch record data base. Report of the International Whaling Commission 39, 363–369.

Best, P.B. 1993. Increase rates in several depleted stocks of baleen whales. ICES Journal of Marine Science 50, 169–186. [CrossRef]

Best, P.B. and Abernethy, R.B. 1994. Heaviside's dolphin Cephalorhynchus heavisidii (Gray, 1828). Pp.289–310 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 5: The First Book of Dolphins (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, London.

Best, P.B., Brandâo, A., and Butterworth, D.S. 2001. Demographic parameters of southern right whales off South Africa. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 161–169.

Best, P.B., Sekiguchi, K., Rakotonirina, B., and Rossouw, A. 1996. The distribution and abundance of humpback whales off southern Madagascar, August–September 1994. Report of the International Whaling Commission 46, 323–331.

Best, R.C. and da Silva, V.M.F. 1989. Biology, status and conservation of Inia geoffrensis in the Amazon and Orinoco basins. Pp.23–34 in: Biology and Conservation of the River Dolphins (eds. W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell, Jr., Zhou Kaiya and Liu Jiankang). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 3, Gland, Switzerland.

Bezzi, S. and Dato, C. 1995. Conocimiento biológico pesquero del recurso merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y su pesquería en la República Argentina. INIDEP, Scientific Document 4, 3–52. Noviembre 1995.

Birkun Jr., A.A. and Krivokhizhin, S.V. 1996. Present state and causes of the Black Sea cetacean populations suppression. Parts I and II. Vestnik Zoologii N3, 36–42 and N4-5, 53–59. [In Russian].

Birkun Jr., A.A. and Krivokhizhin, S.V. 1998. Geographical distribution of cetacean strandings in the north part of the Black Sea and cetacean sightings in the Kerch Strait. Report and Set of Maps for the Commission Internationale pour l'Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Mediterranée, Monaco. 67pp.

Birkun Jr., A.A. Krivokhizhin, S.V., and Pavlov, V.V. 1997. New data on the existence of bottlenose dolphins in the Sea of Azov. European Research on Cetaceans 10, 200–203.

Birkun Jr., A.A. Krivokhozhin, S.V., Shvatsky, A.B., Miloserdova, N.A., Radygin, Y.G., Pavlov, V.V., Nikitina, V.N., Goldin, Y.B., Artov, A.M., Suremkina, A.Y., Zhivkova, Y.P., and Plebansky, V.S. 1992. Present status and future of the Black Sea dolphins. European Research on Cetaceans 6, 47–53.

Birkun Jr., A.A. Kuiken, T., Krivokhizhin, S.V., Haines D.M., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Van de Bildt, M.W.G., Joiris, C.R., and Siebert, U. 1999. Epizootic of morbilliviral disease in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis ponticus) from the Black Sea. Veterinary Record 144, 85–92.

Birtles, R.A. and Arnold, P.W. 2000. Commercial swim program with dwarf minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata sensu lato on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia: a case study. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/52/ WW13, Cambridge, UK.

Bisack, K.D. 1997. Harbor porpoise bycatch estimates in the US New England multispecies sink gillnet fishery: 1994 and 1995. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 705–714.

Bjørge, A. and Donovan, G.P. (eds.). 1995. Biology of the phocoenids: a collection of papers. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 552pp.

Bloch, D., Desportes, G., and Olsen, J. 1997. Faroe Islands — progress report on marine mammal research 1995. Pp. 181–184 in: NAMMCO Annual Report 1996, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway.

Bloch, D. and Olsen, J. 1998. Faroe Islands — progress report on marine mammal research 1996. Pp.205–214 in: NAMMCO Annual Report 1997, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway.

Bloch, D. and Olsen, J. 1999. Faroe Islands — progress report on marine mammal research in 1997. Pp.135–138 in: NAMMCO Annual Report 1998, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway.

Bloch, D., Dam, M., and Olsen, J. 2000. Faroe Islands — progress report on marine mammal research in 1998. Pp.215–219 in: NAMMCO Annual Report 1999, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway.

Bompar, J.M., Baril, D., Dhermain, F., and Ripoll, T. 1994. Estimation of the Corsican population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): is there a real conflict with fishermen?European Research on Cetaceans 8, 92–94.

Bordino, P., Kraus, S., Albareda, D., Fazio, A., Palmerio, A., Mendez, M., and Botta, S. 2002. Reducing incidental mortality of franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei with acoustic warning devices attached to fishing nets. Marine Mammal Science 18, 833–842.

Borrell, A. and Aguilar, A. 1999. A review of organochlorine and metal pollutants in marine mammals from Central and South America. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 1, 195–207.

Borobia. M., Siciliano, S., Lodi. L., and Hoek, W. 1991. Distribution of the South American dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69, 1025–1039.

Bowles, A.E., Smultea, M., Würsig, B., DeMaster, D.P., and Palka, D. 1994. Relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmissions from the Heard Island Feasibility Test. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96, 2469–2484. [CrossRef]

Braulik, G. 2000. Entrapment of Indus dolphins (Platanista minor) in irrigation canals: incidence, implications and solutions. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/52/SM9, Cambridge, UK.

Britor Jr., J.L., Fragoso, A.B.L., Dorneles, P.R., Montenegro, M.G., and Fernandez, M.A.S. 1994. A Presença de Cetáceos em Ambiente Sob Forte Influência Antrópica: Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 6ª Reunião de Trabalho de Especialistas em Mamíferos Aquáticos da América do Sul, Florianópolis.[Abstracts in Portuguese]

Brownell Jr., R.L., Blokhin, S.A., Burdin, A.M., Berzin, A.A., Le Duc, R.G., Pitman, R.L., and Minakuchi, H. 1997. Observations on Okhotsk-Korean gray whales on their feeding grounds off Sakhalin Island. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 161–162.

Brownell Jr., R.L. and Cipriano, F. 1999. Dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray, 1828). Pp.85–104 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Brownell Jr., R.L. and Clapham, P.J. 1999a. Spectacled porpoise Phocoena dioptrica (Lahille, 1912). Pp.379–391 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Brownell Jr., R.L. and Clapham, P.J. 1999b. Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis (Burmeister, 1865). Pp.393–410 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Brownell Jr., R.L., Clapham, P.J., Miyashita, T., and Kasuya, T. 2001. Conservation status of North Pacific right whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 269–286.

Brownell Jr., R.L., Crespo, E.A., and Donahue, M.A. 1999b. Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale, 1848). Pp.105–120 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Brownell Jr., R.L. and Donahue, M.A. 1999. Hourglass dolphin Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824). Pp.121–135 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Brownell Jr., R.L. and Donovan, G.P. (eds.). 1988. Biology of the genus Cephalorhynchus. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 9, Cambridge, UK.

Brownell Jr., R.L., Findley, L.T., Vidal, O., Robles, A., and Manzanilla, N.S. 1987. External morphology and pigmentation of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus (Cetacea: Mammalia). Marine Mammal Science 3, 22–30.

Brownell Jr., R.L. and Kasuya, T. 1999. Western gray whale captured off Hokkaido, Japan. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/51/AS25, Cambridge, UK.

Brownell Jr., R.L., Ralls, K., and Perrin, W.F. 1989. The plight of the “forgotten” whales. Oceanus 32(1), 5–11.

Brownell Jr., R.L., Walker, W.A., and Forney, K.A. 1999a. Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Gill, 1865). Pp.57–84 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Buckland, S.T., Bloch, D., Cattanach, K.L., Gunnlaugsson, T., Hoydal, K., Lens, S., and Sigurjónsson, J. 1993a. Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 14, 33–49.

Buckland, S.T. and Breiwick, J.M. 2002. Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts (1967/68 to 1995/96). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 41–48.

Buckland, S.T., Breiwick, J.M., Cattanach, K.L., and Laake, J.L. 1993b. Estimated population size of the California gray whale. Marine Mammal Science 9, 235–249.

Buckland, S.T., Smith, T., and Cattanach, K.L. 1992. Status of small cetacean populations in the Black Sea: a review of current information and suggestions for future research. Report of the International Whaling Commission 42, 513–516.

Cagnolaro, L. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 1992. Attivitć di ricerca sui cetacei e loro status di conservazione in Italia. Boll. Mus. Ist. biol. Univ. Genova 56–57, 53–85.

Cappozzo, H.L., Monzón, F., Perez, J.E., Albareda, D., and Corcuera, J. 2000. Mortalidad del delfín franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. IV Workshop para a Coordenação da Pesquisa e Conservação da Franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, no Atlântico Sul Ocidental, Technical Paper No. 24.

Carr, T. and Bonde, R.K. 2000. Tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis) occurs in Nicaragua, 800km north of its previously known range. Marine Mammal Science 16, 447–452.

Carretta, J.V., Barlow, J., Forney, K.A., Muto, M.M. and Baker, J. 2001. U.S Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 2001. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-317.

Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., and Brault, S. 1999. Declining survival probability threatens the North Atlantic right whale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 3308–3313. [CrossRef]

Caulfield, R.A. 1997. Greenlanders, Whales, and Whaling: Sustainability and Self-determination in the Arctic. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH.

Chantrapornsyl, S. 1996. The first record of a pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) from Thailand. Phuket Marine Biological Research Bulletin 61, 29–37.

Chantrapornsyl, S., Adulyanukosol, K., and Kittiwattanawong, K. 1996. Records of cetaceans in Thailand. Phuket Marine Biological Research Bulletin 61, 39–63.

Chantrapornsyl, S., Adulyanukosol, K., and Kittiwattanawong, K. 1998. Stranded cetaceans from Thailand. IBI Reports (International Marine Biological Research Institute, Kamogawa, Japan) 9, 55–72.

Chappell, O.P., Leaper, R., and Gordon, J. 1996. Development and performance of an automated harbour porpoise click detector. Report of the International Whaling Commission 46, 587–594.

Chen, P. 1989. Baiji Lipotes vexillifer (Miller, 1918). Pp.25–43 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 4: River Dolphins and the Larger Toothed Whales (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R.J. Harrison). Academic Press, London.

Chen, P. and Hua, Y. 1987 [1989]. Projected impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on the baiji, Lipotes vexillifer, and needs for conservation of the species. Pp.31–41 in: A Collection of Articles on the Impacts of the Three-Gorges Dam Project on Aquatic Ecosystem Along the Changjiang and Research on their Countermeasures. China Scientific Press, Beijing. [Transl. by C.H. Perrin, ed. by W.F. Perrin. Southwest Fish. Admin. Rep. LJ-89–23]

Chen, P. and Hua, Y. 1989. Distribution, population size and protection of Lipotes vexillifer. Pp.81–85 in: Biology and Conservation of the River Dolphins (eds. W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell, Jr., K. Zhou, J. Liu). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 3, Gland, Switzerland.

Clapham, P.J. 2000. The humpback whale: seasonal feeding and breeding in a baleen whale. Pp.173–196 in: Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales (eds. J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 433pp.

Clapham, P.J. and Brownell Jr., R.L. 1996. The potential for interspecific competition in baleen whales. Report of the International Whaling Commission 46, 361–367.

Clapham, P.J., Young, S.B., and Brownell Jr., R.L. 1999. Baleen whales: conservation issues and the status of the most endangered populations. Mammal Review 29, 35–60.

Claude, M., Oporto, J., Ibáñez, C., Brieva, L., Espinosa P.C., and Arqueros, W.M. 2000. La ineficiencia de la salmonicultura en chile. Aspectos sociales, económicos y ambientales. Registro de Problemas Públicos, Informe N° 1.

Cockcroft, V.G. 1990. Dolphin catches in the Natal shark nets, 1980 to 1988. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 20(2), 44–51.

Cockcroft, V.G. 1992. Incidental capture of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in shark nets: an assessment of some possible causes. Journal of Zoology, London 226, 123–134.

Cockcroft, V.G. and Ross, G.J.B. 1991. Bottlenose dolphins in Natal shark nets, 1980 through 1987: catch rates and associated contributing factors. Pp.115–127 in: Cetaceans and Cetacean Research in the Indian Ocean Sanctuary (eds. S. Leatherwood and G.P. Donovan). UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report No. 3, Nairobi, Kenya,

Cockcroft, V.G. and Young, D.D. 1998. An investigation of the status of coastal marine resources along the west coast of Madagascar. Mission Report. 58pp.

Cooke, J. 1991a. Introduction and overview. Pp.4–18 in: Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book (compiler, M. Klinowska). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Cooke, J. 1991b. Classification and reviews of species. Pp.19–27 in: Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book (compiler, M. Klinowska). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Cooke, J.C., Rowntree, V.J., and Payne, R. 2001. Estimates of demographic parameters for southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) observed off Península Valdés, Argentina. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 125–132.

Corcuera, J. 1998. Survey of incidental kill of La Plata river dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei, in northern Argentine waters. Final Report for Yaqu Pacha Foundation.

Corcuera, J., Monzón, F., Crespo, E.A., Aguilar, A., and Raga, J.A. 1994. Interactions between marine mammals and the coastal fisheries of Necochea and Claromecó (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 283–290.

Corcuera, J., Monzón, F., Aguilar, A., Borrell, A., and Raga, J.A. 1995. Life history data, organochlorine pollutants and parasites from eight Burmeister's porpoises, Phocoena spinipinnis, caught in northern Argentine waters. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 365–372.

Corkeron, P.J., Morissette, N.M., Porter, L., and Marsh, H. 1997. Distribution and status of hump-backed dolphins in Australian waters. Asian Marine Biology 14, 49–59.

Cosens, S.E., Qamukaq, T., Parker, B., Dueck, L.P., and Anardjuak, B. 1997. The distribution and numbers of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, in northern Foxe Basin in 1994. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111, 381–388.

Cosens, S.E. and Innes, S. 2000. Distribution and numbers of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in northwestern Hudson Bay in August 1995. Arctic 53, 36–41.

Couperus, A.S. 1997. Interactions between Dutch midwater trawlers and Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) southwest of Ireland. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22, 209–218.

Cox, T.M., Read, A.J., Solow, A., and Tregenza, N. 2001. Will harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) habituate to pingers? Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, 81–86.

Crespo, E.A. 1992. Report of the workshop for the coordination of the research and the conservation of the franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Report to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Buenos Aires, 25–26 September 1992. 15pp.

Crespo, E.A. (ed.) 1998. Informe del tercer taller para la coordinación de la investigación y la conservación de la franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) en el Atlántico Sudoccidental. Buenos Aires, 26–28 November 1997. Report to the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), UNEP Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 23pp.

Crespo, E.A., Corcuera, J.F., and López Cazorla, A. 1994. Interactions between marine mammals and fisheries in some fishing areas of Argentina. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 269–281.

Crespo, E.A., Harris, G., and González, R. 1998. Group size and distributional range of the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei. Marine Mammal Science 14, 845–849.

Crespo, E.A., Koen Alonso, M., Dans, S.L., García, N.A., Pedraza, S.N., Coscarella, M., and González, R. 2000. Incidental catches of dolphins in mid-water trawls for Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) off the Argentine shelf. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 11–16.

Crespo, E.A., Pedraza, S.N., Dans, S.L., Koen Alonso, M., Reyes, L.M., García, N.A., Coscarella, M., and Schiavini, A.C.M. 1997. Direct and indirect effects of the highseas fisheries on the marine mammal populations in the northern and central Patagonian coast. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22, 189–207.

Curry, B.E. and Smith, J. 1997. Phylogeographic structure of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): stock identification and implications for management. Pp.227–247 in: Molecular Genetics of Marine Mammals (eds. A.E. Dizon, S.J. Chivers, and W.F. Perrin). Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 3, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

D'Agrosa, C.E. 1995. “Mortalidad incidental de la vaquita (Phocoena sinus) en actividades pesqueras del alto Golfo de California, México, 1993–94.” Tesis de Maestría en Ciencias, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Guaymas, Sonora, México. 112pp.

D'Agrosa, C., Lennert-Cody, C.E., and Vidal, O. 2000. Vaquita bycatch in Mexico's artisanal gillnet fisheries: driving a small population to extinction. Conservation Biology 14, 1110–1119. [CrossRef]

D'Agrosa, C., Vidal, O., and Graham, W.C. 1995. Mortality of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus) in gillnet fisheries during 1993–94. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 283–291.

Dahlheim, M.E. and Heyning, J.E. 1999. Killer whale Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758). Pp.281–322 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Dalebout, M.L., Lento, G.M., Cipriano, F., Funahashi, N., and Baker, C.S. 2002a. How many protected minke whales are sold in Japan and Korea? A census of microsatellite DNA profiling. Animal Conservation 5(2), 143–152. [CrossRef]

Dalebout, M.L., Mead, J.G., Baker, C.S., Baker, A.N., and van Helden, A.L. 2002b. A new species of beaked whale Mesoplodon perrini sp. n. (Cetacea: Ziphiidae) discovered through phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Marine Mammal Science 18, 577–608.

Dalla Rosa, L. 1998. New information on the occurrence of small cetaceans off southern Brazil. Resumos da VIII Reunião de Trabalho de Especialistas em Mamíferos Aquáticos da América do Sul. 2° Congresso da Sociedade Latinoamericana de Especialistas em Mamíferos Aquáticos – SOLAMAC. Recife, Brasil. 60pp.[Abstracts]

Dans, S.L., Crespo, E.A., García, N.A., Reyes, L.M., Pedraza, S.N., and Alonso, M.K. 1997. Incidental mortality of Patagonian dusky dolphins in mid-water trawling: retrospective effects from the early 1980s. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 699–703.

Dawson, S.M. 1991. Incidental catch of Hector's dolphins in inshore gillnets. Marine Mammal Science 7, 283–295.

Dawson, S., Pichler, F., Slooten, E., Russell, K., and Baker, C.S. 2001. The North Island Hector's dolphin is vulnerable to extinction. Marine Mammal Science 17, 366–371.

Dawson, S.M., Read, A., and Slooten, E. 1998. Pingers, porpoises and power: uncertainties with using pingers to reduce bycatch of small cetaceans. Biological Conservation 84(2), 141–146. [CrossRef]

DeMaster, D.P., Fowler, C.W., Perry, S.L., and Richlen, M.F. 2001. Predation and competition: the impact of fisheries on marine-mammal populations over the next one hundred years. Journal of Mammalogy 82, 641–651. [CrossRef]

Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 1999. Hudson Bay–Foxe Basin bowhead whales. DFO Science Stock Status Report E5-52. 8pp.

Di Beneditto, A.P.M., Ramos, R.M.A, and Lima, N.R.W. 1998. Fishing activity in northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) and its relation with small cetaceans. Braz. Arch. Biol. Tech. 41(3), 296–302.

Dietz, R., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Born, E.W., and Glahder, C.M. 1994. Occurrence of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) and white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in East Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 39, 69–86.

Dizon, A.E., Lockyer, C., Perrin, W.F., DeMaster, D.P., and Sisson, J. 1992. Rethinking the stock concept: a phylogeographic approach. Conservation Biology 6, 24–36. [CrossRef]

Dizon, A.E., Lux, C.A., LeDuc, R.G., Urban-R., J., Henshaw, M., Baker, C.S., Cipriano, F., and Brownell Jr., R.L. 1996. Molecular phylogeny of the Bryde's/sei whale complex: separate species status for the pygmy Bryde's form? International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/48/O27, Cambridge, UK.

Dizon, A.E. and Perrin, W.F. (eds.). 1997. Report of the workshop. Pp.3–48 in: Molecular Genetics of Marine Mammals (eds. A.E. Dizon, S.J. Chivers, and W.F. Perrin). Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication No. 3, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Dolar, M.L.L. 1994. Incidental takes of small cetaceans in fisheries in Palawan, central Visayas and northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 355–363.

Dolar, M.L.L., Leatherwood, S., Wood, C.J., Alava, M.N.R., Hill, C.L., and Aragones, L.V. 1994. Directed fisheries for cetaceans in the Philippines. Report of the International Whaling Commission 44, 439–449.

Dolar, M.L.L. and Perrin, W.F. 1996. Preliminary results on the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the Philippines. IBI Reports (International Marine Biological Research Institute, Kamogawa, Japan) 6, 9–23.

Dolar, M.L.L., Perrin, W.F., Gaudiano, J.P., Yaptinchay, A.A.S.P., and Tan, J.M.L. 2002. Preliminary report on a small estuarine population of Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris in the Philippines. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 155–160.

Dolar, M.L.L., Perrin, W.F., Yaptinchay, A.A.S.P., Jaaman, S.A.B.H., Santos, M.D., Alava, M.N., and Suliansa, M.S.B. 1997. Preliminary investigation of marine mammal distribution, abundance, and interactions with humans in the southern Sulu Sea. Asian Marine Biology 14, 61–81.

Dong, J.H., Lien, J., Nelson, D., and Curren, K. 1996. A contribution to the biology of the white-beaked dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris, in waters off Newfoundland. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110, 278–287.

Donovan, G.P. 1991. A review of IWC stock boundaries. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 13, 39–68.

Donovan, G.P. and Bjørge, A. 1995. Harbour porpoises in the North Atlantic: edited extract from the report of the IWC Scientific Committee, Dublin 1995. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 3–25.

Donovan, G.P., Lockyer, C., and Martin, A.R. (eds.). 1993. Biology of Northern Hemisphere pilot whales: a collection of papers. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 14. Cambridge, UK.

Dudgeon, D. 1992. Endangered ecosystems: a review of the conservation status of tropical Asian rivers. Hydrobiologia 248, 167–191. [CrossRef]

Du Fresne, S., Dawson, S.M., and Slooten. E. 2001. Hector's dolphin abundance: southern line-transect surveys and effect of attraction to survey vessel. New Zealand Department of Conservation, Science Internal Series 1, 19pp.

Duignan, P.J., House, C., Odell, D.K., Wells, R.S., Hansen, L.J., Walsh, M.T., St. Aubin, D.J., Rima, B.K., and Geraci, J.R. 1996. Morbillivirus infection in bottlenose dolphins: evidence for recurrent epizootics in the western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 12, 499–515.

EAA/UNEP. 2000. State and pressures of the marine and coastal Mediterranean environment. Environmental Issues Series 5, 137pp.

Earle, M. 1996. Ecological interactions between cetaceans and fisheries. Pp.167–204 in: The Conservation of Whales and Dolphins: Science and Practice (eds. M.P. Simmonds and J. Hutchinson). Wiley, Chichester, UK.

Edwards, H.H. and Schnell, G.D. 2001. Status and ecology of Sotalia fluviatilis in the Cayos Miskito Reserve, Nicaragua. Marine Mammal Science 17, 445–472.

Ellis, S., Leatherwood, S., Bruford, M., Zhou, K., and Seal, U. 1993. Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) population and habitat viability assessment. Preliminary report. Species 20, 25–28.

Estes, J.A., Tinker, M.T., Williams, T.M., and Doak, D.F. 1998. Killer whale predation linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282, 473–476. [CrossRef]

Evans, P.G.H. and Raga, J.A. (eds.). 2001. Marine Mammals: Biology and Conservation. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

FAO. 1997. Review of the state of world fishery resources: marine fisheries. 5. Mediterranean and Black Sea. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 920 FIRM/C920(En). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 173pp.

Félix, F., Haase, B., Davis, J.W., Chiluiza, D., and Amador, P. 1997. A note on recent strandings and bycatches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Ecuador. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 917–919.

Félix, F. and Samaniego, J. 1994. Incidental catches of small cetaceans in the artisanal fisheries of Ecuador. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 475–483.

Fertl, D. and Leatherwood, S. 1997. Cetacean interactions with trawls: a preliminary review. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22, 219–248.

Findlay, K.P., Best, P.B., Peddemors, V.M., and Gove, D. 1994. The distribution and abundance of humpback whales on their southern and central Mozambique winter grounds. Report of the International Whaling Commission 44, 311–320.

Findley, L.T. and Vidal, O. 2002. Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) at calving sites in the Gulf of California, México. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 27–40.

Finley, K.J. 2001. Natural history and conservation of the Greenland Whale, or bowhead, in the northwest Atlantic. Arctic 54, 55–76.

Flores, P.A. 1995. Conservação e ecologia do boto tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis na Área de Proteção Ambiental do Anhatomirim e Baía Norte de Santa Catarina. Coalisão Internacional da Vida Silvestre-IWC/Brasil. Technical Report, 28pp.[In Portuguese].

Flores, P.A. 1999. Preliminary results of a photoidentification study of the marine tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis, in Southern Brazil. Marine Mammal Science 15, 840–847.

Forcada, J. 1995. Abundance of common and striped dolphins in the southwestern Mediterranean. European Research on Cetaceans 9, 153–155.

Forcada, J., Aguilar, A., Hammond, P.S., Pastor, X., and Aguilar, R. 1994. Distribution and numbers of striped dolphins in the western Mediterranean Sea after the 1990 epizootic outbreak. Marine Mammal Science 10, 137–150.

Forcada, J. and Hammond, P.S. 1998. Geographical variation in abundance of striped and common dolphins of the western Mediterranean. Journal of Sea Research 39, 313–325. [CrossRef]

Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M., and Balcomb, K.C. 2000. Killer Whales. Second edition. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Fortuna, C.M., Wilson, B., Wiemann, A., Riva, L., Gaspari, S., Matesic, M., Oehen, S., and Pribanic, S. 2000. How many dolphins are we studying and is our study area big enough?European Research on Cetaceans 14, 370–373.

Fossi, M.C., Marsili, L., Neri, G., Bearzi, G., and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. [In press]. Are the Mediterranean cetaceans exposed to the toxicological risk of endocrine disrupters?European Research on Cetaceans 15.

Fossi, M.C., Marsili, L., Neri, G., Casini, S., Bearzi, G., Politi, E., Zanardelli, M., and Panigada, S. 2000. Skin biopsy of Mediterranean cetaceans for the investigation of interspecies susceptibility to xenobiotic contaminants. Marine Environmental Research 50, 517–521. [CrossRef]

Frantzis, A. 1998. Does acoustic testing strand whales?Nature, 392, 29. [CrossRef]

Frantzis, A., Gordon, J., Hassidis, G., and Komnenou, A. 2001. The enigma of harbor porpoise presence in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Mammal Science 17, 937–944.

Freeman, M.M.R., Bogoslovskaya, L., Caulfield, R.A., Egede, I., Krupnik, I.I., and Stevenson, M.G. 1998. Inuit, Whaling, and Sustainability. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

Gambell, R. 1999. The International Whaling Commission and the contemporary whaling debate. Pp.179–198 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Gaskin, D.E. 1984. The harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena L.): regional populations, status, and information on direct and indirect catches Report of the International Whaling Commission 34, 569–586.

Gearin, P.J., Gosho, M.E., Laake, J.L., Cooke, L., DeLong, R.L., and Hughes, K.M. 2000. Experimental testing of acoustic alarms (pingers) to reduce bycatch of harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in the state of Washington. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 1–9.

Geraci, J.R., Anderson, D.M., Timperi, R.J., St. Aubin, D.J., Early, G.A., Prescott, J.H., and Mayo, C.A. 1989. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) fatally poisoned by dinoflagellate toxin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46, 1895–1898.

Geraci, J.R., Harwood, J., and Lounsbury, V.J. 1999. Marine mammal die-offs: causes, investigations, and issues. Pp.367–395 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Geraci, J.R., and St. Aubin, J.D. (eds.). 1990. Marine Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

GESAMP. 1997. Opportunistic settlers and the problem of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi invasion in the Black Sea. MO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection. GESAMP Reports and Studies No.58, 84pp.

Gill, P.C., Ross, G.J.B, Dawbin, W.H., and Wapstra, H. 2000. Confirmed sightings of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) in southern Australian waters. Marine Mammal Science 16, 452–459.

Gisiner, R., Cudahy, E., Frisk, G., Gentry, R., Hofman, R., Popper, A., and Richardson, W.J. 1999. Proceedings/workshop on the effects of anthropogenic noise in the marine environment, 10–12 February 1998. Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA. Available at: www.onr.navy.mil/sci_tech/personnel/cnb_sci/proceed.pdf.

Goodall, R.N.P. 1994. Commerson's dolphin Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède 1804). Pp.241–267 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 5: The First Book of Dolphins (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, London.

Goodall, R.N.P. 1997. Review of sightings of the hourglass dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger, in the South American sector of the Antarctic and Sub-antarctic. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 1001–1013.

Goodall, R.N.P., Baker, A.N., Best, P.B., Meyer, M., and Miyazaki, N. 1997c. On the biology of the hourglass dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824). Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 985–999.

Goodall, R.N.P., de Haro, J.C., Fraga, F., Iñiguez, M.A., and Norris, K.S. 1997a. Sightings and behaviour of Peale's dolphins, Lagenorhynchus australis, with notes on dusky dolphins, L. obscurus, off southernmost South America. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 757–775.

Goodall, R.N.P., Norris, K.S., Schevill, W.E., Fraga, F., Praderi, R., Iñiguez Jr., M.A., and de Haro, J.C. 1997b. Review and update on the biology of Peale's dolphin, Lagenorhynchus australis. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 777–796.

Goodall, R.N.P. and Schiavini, A.C.M. 1995. On the biology of the spectacled propoise, Australophocaena dioptrica. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 411–453.

Goodall, R.N.P., Schiavini, A.C.M., and Fermani, C. 1994. Net fisheries and net mortality of small cetaceans off Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 295–306.

Goodall, R.N.P., Würsig, B., Würsig, M., Harris, G., and Norris, K.S. 1995. Sightings of Burmeister's porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, off southern South America. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue)16, 297–316.

Goold, J.C. and Jefferson, T.A. 2002. Acoustic signals from free-ranging finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) in the waters around Hong Kong. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 131–139.

Gordon, J., Gillespie, D., Chappell, O., and Hiby, L. 1998. Potential uses of automated passive acoustic techniques to determine porpoise distribution and abundance in the Baltic Sea. Document Submitted to 5th Meeting of the ASCOBANS Advisory Committee/5/DOC. 13. 4pp.

Gordon, J. and Moscrop, A. 1996. Underwater noise pollution and its significance for whales and dolphins. Pp.281–319 in: The Conservation of Whales and Dolphins: Science and Practice (eds. M.P. Simmonds and J.D. Hutchinson). Wiley, Chichester, UK.

Gosliner, M.L. 1999. The tuna-dolphin controversy. Pp.120–155 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Goto, M. and Pastene, L.A. 1997. Population structure of the western North Pacific minke whale based on an RFLP analysis of the mtDNA control region. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 531–537.

Goujon, M., Antoine, L., and Collet, A. 1993. Incidental catches of cetaceans by the French albacore tuna drift-net fishery preliminary results. ICES Statutory Meeting Document N:13 Ref. H.

Goulding, M. 1989. Amazon: The Flooded Forest. The BBC, London.

Government of Japan. 2001. Annex P4. Response to ‘questions arising about JARPN II’. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3 (Supplement), 329–333.

Gowans, S., Whitehead, H., Arch, J.K., and Hooker, S.K. 2000. Population size and residency patterns of northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) using the Gully, Nova Scotia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 201–210.

Gray, J.S. 1997. Marine biodiversity: Patterns, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity Conservation 6, 153–175. [CrossRef]

Greig, A.B., Secchi, E.R., Zerbini, A.N., and Dalla Rosa, L. 2001. Stranding events of southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, in southern Brazil. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 157–160.

Guerra, C., Van Waerebeek, K., Portflitt, G., and Luna, G. 1987. The presence of cetaceans off the northern Chilean coast. Estud. Oceanol. 6, 87–96.

Haase, B. and Félix, F. 1994. A note on the incidental mortality of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in Ecuador. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 481–483.

Hacquebord, L. 2001. Three centuries of whaling and walrus hunting in Svalbard and its impact on the Arctic ecosystem. Environment and History 7, 169–185.

Hammond, D.D. and Leatherwood, S. 1984. Cetaceans live-captured for Ocean Park, Hong Kong April 1974–February 1983. Report of the International Whaling Commission 34, 491–495.

Hammond, P.S., Berggren, P., Benke, H., Borchers, D.L., Collet, A., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Heimlich, S., Hiby, A.R., Leopold, M.F., and Øien, N. 2002. Abundance of harbour porpoise and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters. Journal of Applied Ecology 39, 361–376. [CrossRef]

Harvell, C.D., Kim, K., Burkholder, J.M., Colwell, R.R., Epstein, P.R., Grimes, D.J., Hofmann, E.E., Lipp, E.K., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Overstreet, R.M., Porter, J.W., Smith, G.W., and Vasta, G.R. 1999. Emerging marine diseases—climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285, 1505–1510. [CrossRef]

Harwood, J. 2001. Marine mammals and their environment in the twenty-first century. Journal of Mammalogy 82, 630–640. [CrossRef]

Harwood, J. and Wilson, B. 2001. Implications of development on the Atlantic Frontier for marine mammals. Continental Shelf Research 21, 1073–1093. [CrossRef]

Harwood, M.B. and Hembree, D. 1987. Incidental catch of small cetaceans in the offshore gillnet fishery in northern Australian waters: 1981–1985. Report of the International Whaling Commission 37, 363–367.

Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. 1994. Distribution, exploitation and population status of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 39, 135–149.

Heptner, V.G., Chapskii, K.K., Arsen'ev, V.A., and Sokolov, V.E. 1996. Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol.2. Part 3. Pinnipeds and Toothed Whales. Smithsonian Institution Libraries and the National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. 995pp.[Originally published in Moscow, 1976].

Heyning, J.E. 1989. Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris (G. Cuvier, 1823). Pp.289–308 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 4: River Dolphins and the Larger Toothed Whales (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, London.

Hilton-Taylor, C. (Compiler). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hoel, A.H. 1990. Norwegian marine policy and the International Whaling Commission. North Atlantic Studies 2(1–2), 117–123.

Hoelzel, A.R., Potter, C.W., and Best, P. 1998. Genetic differentiation between parapatric ‘nearshore’ and ‘offshore’ populations of the bottlenose dolphin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265, 1–7.

Hooker, S.K., Whitehead, H., and Gowans, S. 1999. Marine protected area design and the spatial and temporal distribution of cetaceans in a submarine canyon. Conservation Biology 13, 592–602. [CrossRef]

Horwood, J. 1990. Biology and Exploitation of the Minke Whale. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Houck, W.J., and Jefferson, T.A. 1999. Dall's porpoise Phocoenoides dalli (True, 1885). Pp.443–472 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Hoyt, E. 2000. Whale Watching 2000: Worldwide Tourism Numbers, Expenditures, and Expanding Socioeconomic Benefits. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Crowborough, UK. 157pp.

Huggenberger, S., Benke, H., and Kinze, C.C. 2002. Geographical variation in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) skulls: support for a separate non-migratory population in the Baltic proper. Ophelia 56, 1–12.

Hyrenbach, K.D., Forney, K.A., and Dayton, P.K. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10, 437–458. [CrossRef]

IFAW, Tethys Research Institute and Europe Conservation. 1995. Report of the workshop on the scientific aspects of managing whale watching, Montecastello di Vibio, Italy. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Crowborough, UK.

Ilangakoon, A. 1997. Species composition, seasonal variation, sex ratio and body length of small cetaceans caught off west, south-west and south coast of Sri-Lanka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94, 298–306.

IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Iwashita, M., Inoue, M., and Iwasaki, Y. 1963. On the distribution of Orcinus in the northern and southern Pacific equatorial waters as observed from reports on Orcinus predation. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Laboratory, Tokai University 1(1), 24–30.

Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Miyazaki, N., and Tatsukawa, R. 1994. Detection of butyltin compound residues in the blubber of marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28, 607–612. [CrossRef]

Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Mizuno, T., and Tatsukawa, R. 1995. High accumulation of toxic butyltins in marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 2959–2962.

IWC. 1983. Report of the sub-committee on small cetaceans. Report of the International Whaling Commission 33, 152–170.

IWC. 1989. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 39, 33–157.

IWC. 1991. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 41, 51–219.

IWC. 1992. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 42, 51–270.

IWC. 1994a. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 44, 41–201.

IWC. 1994b. Report of the workshop on mortality of cetaceans in passive fishing nets and traps. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 1–71.

IWC. 1995. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 45, 53–221.

IWC. 1996. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 46, 49–236.

IWC. 1997a. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 57–258.

IWC. 1997b. Report of the workshop on climate change and cetaceans. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 293–319.

IWC. 1998. Report of the scientific committee. Report of the International Whaling Commission 48, 53–302.

IWC. 1999a. Report of the sub-committee on whalewatching. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1 (Supplement), 227–232.

IWC. 1999b. Planning workshop to develop a research programme to investigate pollutant cause-effect relationships in cetaceans – “Pollution 2000+.” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 1, 55–72.

IWC. 1999c. Annual Report of the International Whaling Commission 1998. IWC, Cambridge, UK.

IWC. 1999d. Report of the standing sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1 (Supplement), 211–225.

IWC. 2000a. Report of the standing sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 (Supplement), 235–263.

IWC. 2000b. Report of the standing working group on environmental concerns. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 (Supplement), 209–234.

IWC. 2000c. Report of the sub-committee on the revised management procedure. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 (Supplement), 79–124.

IWC. 2000d. Report of the sub-committee on aboriginal subsistence whaling. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 (Supplement), 155–165.

IWC. 2000e. Annual Report of the International Whaling Commission 1999. IWC, Cambridge, UK.

IWC. 2001a. Report of the standing sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3 (Supplement), 263–291.

IWC. 2001b. Report of the workshop on the comprehensive assessment of right whales: a worldwide comparison. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 1–60.

IWC. 2001c. Report of the workshop on bycatch mitigation measures in static fisheries. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3 (Supplement), 292–296.

IWC. 2001d. Report of the standing working group on environmental concerns. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3 (Supplement), 239–262.

IWC. 2001e. Annual Report of the International Whaling Commission 2000. IWC, Cambridge, UK.

IWC. 2001f. Report of the sub-committee on aboriginal subsistence whaling. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3 (Supplement), 161–176.

IWC. 2001g. Report of the working group on nomenclature. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3 (Supplement), 363–367.

IWC. 2001h. Report of the scientific committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3 (Supplement), 1–76.

IWC. 2002a. Report of the working group on stock definition. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4 (Supplement), 261–281.

IWC. 2002b. Report of the sub-committee on whalewatching. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4 (Supplement), 339–360.

IWC. 2002c. Report of the standing sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4 (Supplement), 325–338.

IWC. 2002d. Report of the scientific committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4 (Supplement), 1–92.

IWC. [In press]. Report of the standing sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5 (Supplement).

Jakobsson, J. 1985. Monitoring and management of the northeast Atlantic herring stocks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42, 207–221.

Jaramillo-Legorreta, A.M., Rojas-Bracho, L., and Gerrodette, T. 1999. A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery. Marine Mammal Science 15, 957–973.

Jasny, M. 1999. Sounding the depths: supertankers, sonar, and the rise of undersea noise. Natural Resources Defense Council Publications, New York. Available at: www.nrdc.org/wildlife/marine/sound/sdinx.asp..

Jefferson, T.A. 2000. Population biology of the Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters. Wildlife Monographs 144, 1–65.

Jefferson, T.A. and Barros, N.B. 1997. Peponocephala electra. Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) 553, 6pp.

Jefferson, T.A. and Curry, B.E. 1994. A global review of porpoise (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) mortality in gillnets. Biological Conservation 67, 167–183. [CrossRef]

Jefferson, T.A., Curry, B.E., and Kinoshita, R. 2002b. Mortality and morbidity of Hong Kong finless porpoises, with emphasis on the role of environmental contaminants. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 161–171.

Jefferson, T.A., Curry, B.E., Leatherwood, S., and Powell, J.A. 1997. Dolphins and porpoises of West Africa: a review of records (Cetacea: Delphinidae, Phocoenidae). Mammalia 61, 87–108.

Jefferson, T.A., Hung, S.K., Law, L., Torey, T., and Tregenza, N. 2002a. Distribution and abundance of finless porpoises in Hong Kong and adjacent waters of China. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 43–55.

Jefferson, T.A. and Karczmarski, L. 2001. Sousa chinensis. Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) 655, 9pp.

Jefferson, T.A. and Leatherwood, S. 1994. Lagenodelphis hosei. Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) 470, 5pp.

Jefferson, T.A. and Reeves, R.R. 1999. Ocean Park Conservation Foundation Action Plan 1998–2002. Ocean Park Conservation Foundation, Hong Kong. 42pp.

Jefferson, T.A. and Smith, B.D. 1997. James Stephen Leatherwood: a chronological list of publications. Asian Marine Biology 14, 5–13.

Jefferson, T.A. and Van Waerebeek, K. 2002. The taxonomic status of the nominal dolphin species Delphinus tropicalis van Bree, 1971. Marine Mammal Science 18, 787–818.

Jones, M.L. and Swartz, S.L. 2002. Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus. Pp.524–536 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Kahn, B. 2000. Komodo National Park cetacean surveys 1999 – a rapid ecological assessment of cetacean diversity, abundance and distribution. Report to The Nature Conservancy – Indonesia Coastal and Marine Program. 29pp.

Kannan, K., Sinha, R.K., Tanabe, S., Ichihashi, H., and Tatsukawa, R. 1993. Heavy metals and organochlorine residues in Ganges river dolphins from India. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26, 159–162. [CrossRef]

Kannan, N., Tanabe, S., Ono, M., and Tatsukawa, R. 1989. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18, 850–857. [CrossRef]

Kannan, K., Tanabe, S., Tatsukawa, R., and Sinha, R.K. 1994. Biodegradation capacity and residue pattern of organochlorines in the Ganges river dolphins from India. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 42, 249–261.

Kannan, K., Senthilkumar, K., and Sinha, R.K. 1997. Sources and accumulation of butyltin compounds in Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica. Applied Organometallic Chemistry 11, 223–230. [CrossRef]

Karczmarski, L., Winter, P.E.D., Cockcroft, V.G., and McLachlan, A. 1999. Population analyses of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis in Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Marine Mammal Science 15, 1115–1123.

Kasamatsu, F., Hembree, D., Joyce, G., Tsunoda, L., Rowlett, R., and Nakano, T. 1988. Distribution of cetacean sightings in the Antarctic: results obtained from the IWC/IDCR minke whale assessment cruises, 1978/79 to 1983/84. Report of the International Whaling Commission 38, 449–473.

Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G.G. 1995. Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic. Antarctic Science 7, 365–379.

Kasamatsu, F., Nishiwaki, S., and Ishikawa, H. 1995. Breeding areas and southbound migrations of southern minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 119, 1–10.

Kasuya, T. 1972. Some informations on the growth of the Ganges dolphin with a comment on the Indus dolphin. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo) 24, 87–108.

Kasuya, T. 1985. Effect of exploitation on reproductive parameters of the spotted and striped dolphins off the Pacific Coast of Japan. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo) 36, 107–138.

Kasuya, T. 1999a. Examination of the reliability of catch statistics in the Japanese coastal sperm whale fishery. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1, 109–122.

Kasuya, T. 1999b. Finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier, 1829), Pp.411–441 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Kasuya, T. 1999c. Review of the biology and exploitation of striped dolphins in Japan. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1, 81–100.

Kasuya, T. and Miyashita, T. 1997. Distribution of Baird's beaked whales off Japan. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 963–968.

Kasuya, T., Yamamoto, Y., and Iwatsuki, T. 2002. Abundance decline in the finless porpoise population in the Inland Sea of Japan. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 57–65.

Kato, H. 2002. Bryde's whales Balaenoptera edeni and B. brydei. Pp.171–177 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Kato, H., Shinohara, E., Kishiro, T., and Noji, S. 1996. Distribution of Bryde's whales off Kochi, southwest Japan, from the 1994/95 sighting survey. Report of the International Whaling Commission 46, 429–436.

Katona, S.K. and Kraus, S.D. 1999. Efforts to conserve the North Atlantic right whale. Pp.311–331 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Kawamura, A. 1994. A review of baleen whale feeding in the Southern Ocean. Report of the International Whaling Commission 44, 261–271.

Kemper, C.M. 2002. Pygmy right whale Caperea marginata. Pp.1010–1012 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Kemper, C.M. and Gibbs, S.E. 2001. Dolphin interactions with tuna feedlots at Port Lincoln, South Australia and recommendations for minimizing entanglements. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, 283–292.

Kemper, C.M. and Leppard, P. 1999. Estimating body length of pygmy right whales (Caperea marginata) from measurements of the skeleton and baleen. Marine Mammal Science 15, 683–700.

Kenney, R.D. and Kraus, S. 1993. Right whale mortality–a correction and update. Marine Mammal Science 9, 445–446.

Ketten, D.R., Lien, J., and Todd, S. 1993. Blast injury in humpback whale ears: evidence and implications. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94, 1849–1850. [CrossRef]

Khan, M. and Niazi, M. 1989. Distribution and population status of the Indus dolphin, Platanista minor. Pp.77–80 in: Biology and Conservation of the River Dolphins (eds. W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell, Jr., Zhou Kaiya and Liu Jiankang). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 3, Gland, Switzerland.

Kim, Z.G. 1999. Bycatches of minke whales in Korean waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1 (Supplement), 98–100.

Kinas, P.G. 2002. The impact of incidental kills by gillnets on the franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) in southern Brazil. Bulletin of Marine Science 70, 409–421.

Kinas, P.G. and Secchi, E.R. 1998. Modelling truncated data to estimate incidental kills of franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, by gillnets. Report of the International Whaling Commission 48, 533–536.

Kingsley, M.C.S. 1998. Population index estimates for the St. Lawrence belugas, 1973–1995. Marine Mammal Science 14, 508–530.

Kingsley, M.C.S. 2000. Numbers and distribution of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in James Bay, eastern Hudson Bay, and Ungava Bay in Canada during the summer of 1993. Fishery Bulletin 98, 736–747.

Kingsley, M.C.S. 2001. Beluga surveys in the St Lawrence: a reply to Michaud and Béland. Marine Mammal Science 17, 213–218.

Kingsley, M.C.S. and Reeves, R.R. 1998. Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76, 1529–1550. [CrossRef]

Kinze, C.C. 1995. Exploitation of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Danish waters: a historical review. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 141–153.

Kinze, C.C., Addink, M., Smeenk, C., García Hartmann, M., Richards, H.W., Sonntag, R.P., and Benke, H. 1997. The white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and the white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the North and Baltic seas: review of available information. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 675–681.

Kishiro, T. and Kasuya, T. 1993. Review of Japanese dolphin drive fisheries and their status. Report of the International Whaling Commission 43, 439–452.

Klinowska, M. 1991. Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World. The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Kock, K.-H. and Benke, H. 1996. On the by-catch of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in German fisheries in the Baltic and the North Sea. Archive of Fishery and Marine Research 44(1/2), 95–114.

Koen Alonso, M., Crespo, E.A., García, N.A., Pedraza, S.N., and Coscarella, M.A. 1998. Diet of dusky dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, in waters off Patagonia, Argentina. Fishery Bulletin 96, 366–374.

Koen Alonso, M., Crespo, E.A., Pedraza, S.N., García, N.A., and Coscarella, M. 2000. Feeding habits of the southern sea lion Otaria flavescens of Patagonia. Fishery Bulletin 97, 250–263.

Kondolf, G.M. 1997. Hungry water: effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environmental Management 21, 533–551. [CrossRef]

Kotas, J.E., Gamba, M.R., Conolly, P.C., Hostim-Silva, M., Mazzoleni, R.C., and Pereira, J. 1995. A pesca de emalhe de deriva (drift-net) com desembarques em Itajaí e Navegantes/SC. Unpublished manuscript. 29pp.

Kraus, S.D. 1990. Rates and potential causes of mortality in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Marine Mammal Science 6, 278–291.

Kraus, S.D., Read, A.J., Solow, A., Baldwin, K., Spradlin, T., Anderson, E., and Williamson, J. 1997. Acoustic alarms reduce porpoise mortality. Nature 388, 525. [CrossRef]

Kreb, D. 1999. Observations on the occurrence of Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Z. Säugetierkunde 64, 54–58.

Kreb, D. 2000. Abundance and distribution of the pesut, Orcaella brevirostris, in the Mahakam River, lakes, and coast of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/52/SM32, Cambridge, UK.

Kreb, D. 2002. Density and abundance estimates of the Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, in the Mahakam River of East Kalimantan, Indonesia: a comparison of survey techniques. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 85–95.

Krivokhizhin, S.V. and Birkun Jr., A.A. 1999. Strandings of cetaceans along the coasts of Crimean peninsula in 1989–1996. European Research on Cetaceans 12, 59–62.

Kruse, S., Caldwell, D.K., and Caldwell, M.C. 1999. Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus (G. Cuvier, 1812). Pp.183–212 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Laake, J.L., Calambokidis, J., Osmek, S.D., and Rugh, D.J. 1997. Probability of detecting harbor porpoises from aerial surveys: estimating g(0). Journal of Wildlife Management 61, 63–75.

Lahvis, G.P., Wells, R.S., Kuehl, D.W., Stewart, J.L., Rhinehart, H.L., and Via, C.S. 1995. Decreased lymphocyte responses in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are associated with increased concentrations of PCBs and DDT in peripheral blood. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (Supplement 4), 67–72.

Lailson-Brito Jr., J., Azevedo, A.F., Pizzorno, J.L.A., and Fragoso, A.B.L. 1999. The marine tucuxi in Guanabara Bay: conservation matters. 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, 28 November–3 December, Maui, Hawaii. [Abstract].

Laist, D.W., Coe, J.M., and O'Hara, K.J. 1999. Marine debris pollution. Pp.342–366 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Laist, D.W., Knowlton, A.R., Mead, J.G., Collet, A.S., and Podesta, M. 2001. Collisions between ships and whales. Marine Mammal Science 17, 35–75.

Leaper, R., Fairbairns, R., Gordon, J., Hiby, A., Lovell, P., and Papastavrou, V. 1997. Analysis of data collected from a whalewatching operation to assess relative abundance and distribution of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) around the Isle of Mull, Scotland. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 505–511.

Leatherwood, S. 1994. Re-estimation of incidental cetacean catches in Sri Lanka. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 64–65.

Leatherwood, S., Dolar, M.L.L., Wood, C.J., Aragones, L.V., and Hill, C.L. 1992. Marine mammal species confirmed from Philippine waters. Silliman Journal 36, 65–86.

Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R.R. (eds.). 1989. Marine mammal research and conservation in Sri Lanka 1985–1986. UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report 1, Nairobi, Kenya.

Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R.R. 1994. River dolphins: a review of activities and plans of the Cetacean Specialist Group. Aquatic Mammals 20, 137–154.

Leatherwood, S., Reeves, R.R., Würsig, B., and Shearn, D. 2000. Habitat preferences of river dolphins in the Peruvian Amazon. Pp.131–143 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Le Boeuf, B.J., H. Pérez-Cortés M., J. Urbán R., B.R. Mate, and F. Ollervides U. 2000. High gray whale mortality and low recruitment in 1999: potential causes and implications. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 85–99.

Leduc, R.G. and Curry, B.E. 1997. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis indicates need for revision of the genus Tursiops. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 393.

Leduc, R.G., Perrin, W.F., and Dizon, A.E. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among the delphinid cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences. Marine Mammal Science 15, 619–648.

Lesage, V. and Kingsley, M.C.S. 1998. Updated status of the St. Lawrence River population of the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112, 98–114.

Lescrauwaet, A.-C. and Gibbons, J. 1994. Mortality of small cetaceans and the crab bait fishery in the Magallanes area of Chile since 1980. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 485–494.

Lescrauwaet, A.-C., Gibbons, J., Guzmán, L., and Schiavini, A. 2000. Estimación de abundancia de tonina overa en el sector oriental del Estrecho de Magallanes, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 73(3), 1–9.

Levenez, J.J., Fonteneau, A., and Regaldo, R. 1980. Résultat d'une enquête sur l'importance des dauphins dans la pêcherie thonière FISM. ICCAT Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. 4, 176–179.

Liu, R., Wang, D., and Zhou, K. 2000. Effects of water development on river cetaceans in China. Pp.40–42 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Lodi, L., Siciliano, S., and Bellini, C. 1996. Ocorrência e conservação de baleias-francas-do-sul, Eubalaena australis, no litoral do Brasil. Papéis Avulsos de Zool., São Paulo 39(17), 307–328.

Lux, C.A., Costa, A.S., and Dizon, A.E. 1997. Mitochondrial DNA population structure of the Pacific white-sided dolphin. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 645–652.

Mace, G.M. and Lande, R. 1991. Assessing extinction threats: toward a reevaluation of IUCN threatened species categories. Conservation Biology 5, 148–157. [CrossRef]

MacKenzie, B.R., Alheit, J., Conley, D.J., Holm, P., and Kinze, C.C. 2002. Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, 173–190.

Maiers, L.D., de March, B.G.E., Clayton, J.W., Dueck, L.P., and Cosens, S.E. 2001. Genetic variation among populations of bowhead whales summering in Canadian waters. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/53/BRG5, Cambridge, UK.

Maigret, J. 1981. Introduction à l'étude des rapports entre les cétacés et la pêche thonière dans l'Atlantique tropical. Bull. du Centre Natl. Rech. Oceanogr. Pêches Mouadhibou 10, 89–101.

Majid, A. 1988. Marine fisheries in Pakistan. Pp.247–253 in: Marine Science of the Arabian Sea (eds. M. Thompson and N. Trimizi). American Institute of Biological Science, Washington, DC.

Mangel, M. 1993. Effects of high-seas driftnet fisheries on the northern right whale dolphin Lissodelphis borealis. Ecological Applications 3, 221–229. [CrossRef]

Mangel, M. and Hofman, R.J. 1999. Ecosystems: patterns, processes, and paradigms. Pp.87–98 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Mangel, M., Talbot, L.M., Meffe, G.K., Agardy, M.T., Alverson, D.L., Barlow, J., Botkin, D.B., Budowski, G., Clark, T., Cooke, J., Crozier, R.H., Dayton, P.K., Elder, D.L., Fowler, C.W., Funtowicz, S., Giske, J., Hofman, R.J., Holt, S.J., Kellert, S.R., Kimball, L.A., Ludwig, D., Magnusson, K., Malayang III, B.S., Mann, C., Norse, E.A., Northridge, S.P., Perrin, W.F., Perrings, C., Peterman, R.M., Rabb, G.B., Regier, H.A., Reynolds III, J.E., Sherman, K., Sissenwine, M.P., Smith, T.D., Starfield, A., Taylor, R.J., Tillman, M.F., Toft, C., Twiss Jr., J.R., Wilen, J., and Young, T.P. 1996. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources. Ecological Applications 6, 338–362. [CrossRef]

Mansur, M. and Canto, J. 1997. Las pesquerías de centolla y centollón y su interferencia con mamíferos marinos. Ambiente y Desarrollo 13, 64–69.

Marine Mammal Commission. 2000. Annual report to congress 1999. Marine Mammal Commission, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Marini L., Consiglio, C., Angradi, A.M., Catalano, B., Sanna, A., Valentini, T., Finoia, M.G., and Villetti, G. 1996. Distribution, abundance and seasonality of cetaceans sighted during scheduled ferry crossings in the central Tyrrhenian Sea: 1989–1992. Ital. J. Zool. 63, 381–388.

Marques, C.C., El-Deir, A.C.A., Filho, G.R., Rangel, C.E., da Costa, G.M., Lessa, R.P.T., and Hellebrandt, D. 1998. Registro de captura acidental de um cachalote-anão, Kogia simus (Owen, 1866) (Cetacea: Odontoceti) ao largo da costa da Paraíba. Resumos do XXII Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 8 – 13 de fevereiro, Recife – PE. p.334.

Marsh, H., Penrose, H., Eros, C., and Hugues, J. 2002. Dugong Status Report and Action Plans for Countries and Territories. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Early Warning and Assessment Reports Series, UNEP/DEWA/RS.02–1.

Martien, K.K., Taylor, B.L., Slooten, E., and Dawson, S. 1999. A sensitivity analysis to guide research and management for Hector's dolphin. Biological Conservation 90, 183–191. [CrossRef]

Matkin, C.O. and Saulitis, E.L. 1994. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) biology and management in Alaska. Contract Report to Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC.

Matsuoka, K., Fujise, Y., and Pastene, L.A. 1996. A sighting of a large school of the pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, in the southeast Indian Ocean. Marine Mammal Science 12, 594–597.

Mayo, C.A., Letcher, B.H., and Scott, S. 2001. Zooplankton filtering efficiency of the baleen of a North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 225–229.

McGuire, T.L. 2002. “Distribution and abundance of river dolphins in the Peruvian Amazon”. Ph.D. dissertation, Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Mead, J.G. 1989. Beaked whales of the genus Mesoplodon. Pp.349–430 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 4: River Dolphins and the Larger Toothed Whales (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, London.

Mead, J.G. and Mitchell, E.D. 1984. Atlantic gray whales. Pp.33–53 in: The Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus (eds. M.L. Jones, S.L. Swartz, and S. Leatherwood). Academic Press, Orlando, FL.

Mead, J.G. and Potter, C.W. 1995. Recognizing two populations of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) off the Atlantic coast of North America: morphologic and ecologic considerations. IBI Reports (International Marine Biological Research Institute, Kamogawa, Japan) 5, 31–44.

Meffe, G.K., Perrin, W.F., and Dayton, P.K. 1999. Marine mammal conservation: guiding principles and their implementation. Pp.437–454 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr., and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Mercer, M.C. 1975. Modified Leslie-DeLury population models of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melaena) and annual production of the short-finned squid (Illex illecebrosus) based upon their interaction at Newfoundland. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32, 1145–1154.

Meynell, P.J. 1991. Possible effects of the Indus Water Accord on the Indus Delta ecosystem. Korango Ecosystem Project, Issues Paper No.1. IUCN, Karachi, Pakistan.

Michaud, R. and Béland, P. 2001. Looking for trends in the endangered St. Lawrence beluga population. A critique of Kingsley, M.C.S. 1998. Marine Mammal Science 17, 206–212.

Mikhalev, Y.A. 1997. Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in the Arabian Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 149, 13–21.

Mikkelsen, A.M.H. and Lund, A. 1994. Intraspecific variation in the dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris and L. acutus (Mammalia: Cetacea) in metrical and non-metrical skull characters, with remarks on occurrence. Journal of Zoology, London 234, 289–299.

Mirza, A.H. and Khurshid. S.N. 1996. Survey of the Indus dolphin, Platanista minor, in Sindh. World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan and Sindh Wildlife Department, Karachi.

Mishra, D.K. 1999. Above the danger mark. Himal 12(1), 12–17.

Mitchell, E. (ed.). 1975. Review of biology and fisheries for smaller cetaceans. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32, 889–1240.

Miyashita, T. 1993. Abundance of dolphin stocks in the western North Pacific taken by the Japanese drive fishery. Report of the International Whaling Commission 43, 417–437.

Miyashita, T. and Kato, H. 1998. Recent data on the status of right whales in the NW Pacific Ocean. Unpublished document submitted to Workshop on the Comprehensive Assessment of Right Whales. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/M98/RW11, Cambridge, UK.

Miyazaki, N. 1983. Catch statistics of small cetaceans taken in Japanese waters. Report of the International Whaling Commission 33, 621–631.

Mohan, R.S.L. 1994. Review of gillnet fisheries and cetacean by-catches in the northeastern Indian Ocean. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 329–346.

Mohan, R.S.L., Dey, S.C., Bairagi, S.P., and Roy, S. 1997. On a survey of Ganges river dolphin Platanista gangetica of Brahmaputra River, Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94, 483–495.

Mohan, R.S.L. and Kunhi, K.V.M. 1996. Fish oils as alternative to river dolphin, Platanista gangetica (Lebeck) oil for fishing catfish Clupisoma garua in the River Ganges, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93, 86–88.

Montague, J.J. 1993. Introduction. Pp.1–21 in: The Bowhead Whale (eds. J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles). Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Monteiro-Filho, E.L.A., Monteiro, L.R., and dos Reis, S.F. 2002. Skull shape and size divergence in dolphins of the genus Sotalia: a tridimensional morphometric analysis. Journal of Mammalogy 83, 125–134. [CrossRef]

Monteiro-Neto, C., Teixeira Alves-Júnior, T., Capibaribe Ávila, F.J., Alves Campos, A., Fernandes Costa, A., Pereira Negrão Silva, C., and Andrade Furtado-Neto, M.A. 2000. Impact of fisheries on the tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis) and rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) populations off Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. Aquatic Mammals 26(1), 49–56.

Monzón, F. and Corcuera, J. 1991. Franciscana Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844). Pp.16–22 in: Estado de Conservación de los Mamíferos Marinos del Atlántico Sudoccidental (eds. H.L. Capozzo and M. Junín). United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Informes y estudios del Programa de Mares Regionales del PNUMA No. 138.

Moore, S.E. and Clarke, J.T. 2002. Potential impact of offshore human activities on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 19–25.

Moore, S.E. and Reeves, R.R. 1993. Distribution and movement. Pp.313–386 in: The Bowhead Whale (eds. J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles). Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Mora-Pinto, D.M., Muñoz-Hincapié, M.F., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., and Acero-Pizarro, A. 1995. Marine mammal mortality and strandings along the Pacific coast of Colombia. Report of the International Whaling Commission 45, 427–429.

Moreira, L.M. de P., and Siciliano, S. 1991. Northward range extension for Pontoporia blainvillei. Ninth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, 5–9 December, Chicago, Illinois. [Abstract].

Morton, A. 2000. Occurrence, photo-identification and prey of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) in the Broughton archipelago, Canada 1984–1998. Marine Mammal Science 16, 80–93.

Morton, A.B. and Symonds, H.K. 2002. Displacement of Orcinus orca (L.) by high amplitude sound in British Columbia, Canada ICES Journal of Marine Science 59, 71–80. [CrossRef]

Motwani, M.P. and Srivastava, C.B. 1961. Aspecial method of fishing for Clupisoma garua (Hamilton) in the Ganges river system. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 58, 285–286.

Müller, G., Wünschmann, A., Baumgärtner, W., Birkun, A., Komakhidze, A., Stanev, T., and Joiris, C.R. 2000. Immunohistological and serological investigation of morbillivirus infection in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Black Sea. European Research on Cetaceans 14, 276.

Munson, L., Calzada, N., Kennedy, S., and Sorensen, T.B. 1998. Luteinized ovarian cysts in Mediterranean striped dolphins. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34, 656–660.

Murray, K.T., Read, A.J., and Solow, A.R. 2000. The use of time/area closures to reduce bycatches of harbour porpoises: lessons from the Gulf of Maine sink gillnet fishery. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 135–141.

NAMMCO. 1997. Report of the third meeting of the scientific committee. Annual Report of the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, 1995, 71–126.

NAMMCO. 2000a. Report of the management committee. Annual Report of the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, 1999, 85–121.

NAMMCO. 2000b. Report of the NAMMCO scientific committee working group on the population status of beluga and narwhal in the North Atlantic. Annual Report of the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, 1999, 153–188.

National Research Council. 1992. Dolphins and the Tuna Industry. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

National Research Council. 1996. The Bering Sea Ecosystem. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Natoli, A., Cañadas, A., Vaquero, C., Politi, E., Fernandez-Piqueras, J., and Hoelzel, A.R [In press]. Phylogeography of Mediterranean and North Atlantic common dolphin populations. European Research on Cetaceans 15.

Natoli, A. and Hoelzel, A.R. 2000. Genetic diversity in a Mediterranean population of the bottlenose dolphin in the context of worldwide phylogeography. European Research on Cetaceans 14, 343.

Newcomer, M.W., Jefferson, T.A., and Brownell Jr., R.L. 1996. Lissodelphis peronii. Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) 531, 5pp.

Nichols, C., Stone, G., Hutt, A., Brown, J., and Yoshinaga, A. 2001. Observations of interactions between Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori), boats and people at Akaroa Harbour, New Zealand. Science for Conservation 178, 49pp.

Norris, K.S., Würsig, B., Wells, R.S., and Würsig, M. 1994. The Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin. University of California Press, Berkeley. 408pp.

Northridge, S.P. 1991. Driftnet fisheries and their impacts on non-target species: a world-wide review. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 320.

Northridge, S.P. and Hofman, R.J. 1999. Marine mammal interactions with fisheries. Pp.99–119 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Northridge, S., Tasker, M., Webb, A., Camphuysen, K., and Leopold, M. 1997. White-beaked Lagenorhynchus albirostris and Atlantic white-sided dolphin L. acutus distributions in northwest European and US North Atlantic waters. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 797–805.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 1990. A note on the cetacean incidental catch in the Italian driftnet swordfish fishery, 1986–1988. Report of the International Whaling Commission 40, 459–460.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. and Bearzi, G. 1992. Cetaceans in the northern Adriatic Sea: past, present, and future. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit. 33, 303.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Bearzi, G., Mo, G., and Cozzi, B. 2001. Piano d'Azione Nazionale per la tutela dei cetacei dei mari italiani. Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Applicata al Mare, Roma.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. and Gordon, J. 1997. Bioacoustics: A tool for the conservation of cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 30, 125–146.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Politi, E., Bayed, A., Beaubrun, P.-C., and Knowlton, A. 1998. A winter survey off southern Morocco, with a special emphasis on right whales. Report of the International Whaling Commission 48, 547–550.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Venturino, M.C., Zanardelli, M., Bearzi, G., Borsani, F.J., and Cavalloni, B. 1993. Cetaceans in the central Mediterranean Sea: Distribution and sighting frequencies. Boll. Zool. 60, 131–138.

Odell, D.K. and McClune, K.M. 1999. False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846). Pp.213–243 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Ohsumi, S. 1972. Catch of marine mammals, mainly of small cetaceans, by local fisheries along the coast of Japan. Bulletin of the Far Seas Fisheries Research Laboratory 7, 137–166.

Ohsumi, S. 1975. Incidental catch of cetaceans with salmon gillnet. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32, 1229–1235.

Olesiuk, P.F., Nichol, L.M., Sowden, M.J., and Ford, J.K.B. 2002. Effect of the sound generated by an acoustic harassment device on the relative abundance and distribution of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia. Marine Mammal Science 18, 843–862.

Omura, H. 1988. Distribution and migration of the western Pacific stock of gray whale. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo) 39, 1–9.

O'Shea, T.J. 1999. Environmental contaminants and marine mammals. Pp.485–563 in: Biology of Marine Mammals (eds. J.E. Reynolds, III, and S.A. Rommel). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

O'Shea, T.J. and Brownell Jr., R.L. 1994. Organochlorine and metal contaminants in baleen whales: a review and evaluation of conservation implications. The Science of the Total Environment 154, 179–200. [CrossRef]

O'Shea, T.J., Reeves, R.R., and Long, A.K. (eds.). 1999. Marine mammals and persistent ocean contaminants: proceedings of the Marine Mammal Commission workshop, Keystone, Colorado, 12–15 October. 1998.

Ott, P.H. 1998. “Análise das capturas acidentais de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844) (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae) nas comunidades pesqueiras do litoral Norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil”. M.Sc. thesis. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil. 121pp.

Öztürk, B. (ed.). 1996. Proceedings of the first international symposium on the marine mammals of the Black Sea. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 27–30 June 1994, Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul, Turkey.

Öztürk, B. and Öztürk, A.A. 1997. Preliminary study on dolphin occurrence in Turkish straits system. European Research on Cetaceans 11, 79–82.

Palacios, D.M. and Gerrodette, T. 1996. Potential impact of artisanal gillnet fisheries on small cetacean populations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Southwest Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report LJ-96-11, La Jolla, California.15pp.

Palka, D. 1995. Abundance estimate of the Gulf of Maine harbor porpoise. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 27–50.

Palka, D., Read, A., and Potter, C. 1997. Summary of knowledge of white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) from US and Canadian Atlantic waters. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 729–734.

Parra, G.J., Azuma, C., Preen, A.R., Corkeron, P.J., and Marsh, H. 2002. Distribution of Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris, in Australian waters. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 141–154.

Parsons, E.C.M. and Chan, H.M. 1998. Organochlorines in Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Hong Kong. Pp.423–438 in: The Marine Biology of the South China Sea. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Marine Biology of the South China Sea, Hong Kong, 28 October–1 November 1996 (ed. B. Morton). Hong Kong University Press.

Parsons, E.C.M. and Jefferson, T.A. 2000. Post-mortem investigations on stranded dolphins and porpoises from Hong Kong waters. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36, 342–356.

Parsons, E.C.M. and Wang, J.Y. 1998. A review of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the South China Sea. Pp.287–306 in: The Marine Biology of the South China Sea. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Marine Biology of the South China Sea, Hong Kong, 28 October–1 November 1996 (ed. B. Morton). Hong Kong University Press.

Parsons, J. 1995. Marine mammal monitoring program – Canadian patrol frigate shock trials, November 8–21, 1994. Final Report to Department of National Defence, Ottawa, from John Parsons&Associates, Halifax. 28pp.

Paterson, R.A. 1990. Effects of long-term anti-shark measures on target and non-target species in Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 52, 147–159. [CrossRef]

Pavlov, V., Artov, A., and Zhuravleva, T. 1996. Impact of fishing on Black Sea dolphins off the Crimea coasts. Pp.41–43 in: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Marine Mammals of the Black Sea, (ed. B. Öztürk). United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 27–30 June 1994, Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul, Turkey.

Peddemors, V.M. 1999. Delphinids of southern Africa: a review of their distribution, status and life history. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1, 157–165.

Peddemors, V.M., Cockcroft, V.G., and Wilson, R.B. 1991. Incidental dolphin mortality in the Natal shark nets: a preliminary report on prevention measures. Pp.129–137 in: Cetaceans and Cetacean Research in the Indian Ocean Sanctuary (eds. S. Leatherwood and G.P. Donovan). UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report No. 3. Nairobi, Kenya.

Pérez Macri, G. and Crespo, E.A. 1989. Survey of the franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) along the Argentine coast with a preliminary evaluation of incidental mortality in coastal fisheries. Pp.57–63 in: Biology and Conservation of the River Dolphins (eds. W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell Jr., Zhou Kaiya, and Liu Jiankang). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 3, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Perrin, W.F. 1988. Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales. An Action Plan for the Conservation of Biological Diversity: 1988–1992. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Perrin, W.F. 1989. Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales. An Action Plan for the Conservation of Biological Diversity: 1988–1992. 2nd edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Perrin, W.F. 1998. Stenella longirostris. Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) 599, 1–7.

Perrin, W.F. 1999. Selected examples of small cetaceans at risk. Pp.296–310 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Perrin, W.F. 2002. Spinner dolphin Stenella longirostris. Pp.1174–1177 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Perrin, W.F., and Brownell, R.L., Jr. (eds.). 1989. Report of the workshop. Pp.1–22 in: Biology and Conservation of the River Dolphins (eds. W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell, Jr., Zhou Kaiya and Liu Jiankang). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 3, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Perrin, W.F., Dolar, M.L.L., and Alava, M.N.R. (eds.). 1996. Report of the workshop on the biology and conservation of small cetaceans and dugongs of Southeast Asia, Dumaguete, Philippines, 27–30 June 1995. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Bangkok.

Perrin, W.F., Donovan, G.P., and Barlow, J. (eds.). 1994. Gillnets and Cetaceans. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, Cambridge, UK. 629pp.

Perrin, W.F., Miyazaki, N., and Kasuya, T. 1989. A dwarf form of the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Thailand. Marine Mammal Science 5, 213–227.

Perrin, W.F., Dolar, M.L.L., and Robineau, D. 1999. Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the western Pacific and Southeast Asia: pelagic and shallow-water forms. Marine Mammal Science 15, 1029–1053.

Perrin, W.F., Reeves, R.R., Dolar, M.L.L., Jefferson, T.A., Marsh, H., Wang, J.Y., and Estacion, J. (eds.). [In press]. Report of the second workshop on the biology and conservation of small cetaceans and dugongs of Southeast Asia, Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines, 24–26 July 2002.

Perrin, W.F., Würsig, B., and Thewissen, J.G.M. (eds.). 2002. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Pfeiffer, W.C., Lacerda, L.D., Salamons, W., and Malm, O. 1993. Environmental fate of mercury from gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental Reviews 1, 26–37.

Pichler, F.B. and Baker, C.S. 2000. Loss of genetic diversity in the endemic Hector's dolphin due to fisheries-related mortality. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267, 97–102. [CrossRef]

Pichler, F., Baker, C.S., Dawson, S.M., and Slooten, E. 1998. Geographic isolation of Hector's dolphin populations described by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Conservation Biology 12, 676–682. [CrossRef]

Pierce, F. 2000. Tails of woe. New Scientist (11 November).

Pilleri, G. and Gihr, M. 1972. Contribution to the knowledge of the cetaceans of Pakistan with particular reference to the genera Neomeris, Sousa, Delphinus and Tursiops and a description of a new Chinese porpoise (Neomeris asiaeorientalis). Investigations on Cetacea 4, 107–162.

Pilleri, G. and Pilleri, O. 1979. Observations on the dolphins in the Indus Delta (Sousa plumbea and Neophocaena phocaenoides) in winter 1978–1979. Investigations on Cetacea 10, 129–135.

Pinedo, M.C. 1991. “Development and variation of the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei”. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz. 406pp.

Pinedo, M.C. 1994. Relatório do Segundo Encontro sobre Coordenaçao de pesquesa e manejo da franciscana. Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, 22–23 de outubro de 1994. 12pp.

Pinedo, M.C. and Barreto, A. 1997. Proceedings of the second workshop for the research coordination and conservation of the franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) in the Southwestern Atlantic. Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande Press, Rio Grande. 88pp.

Pinedo, M.C. and Polacheck, T. 1999. Trends in franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) stranding rates in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil (1979–1998). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1, 179–189.

Pitman, R.L. 2002a. Indo-Pacific beaked whale Indopacetus pacificus. Pp.615–617 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J. G. M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Pitman, R.L. 2002b. Mesoplodont whales Mesoplodon spp. Pp.738–742 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J. G. M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Pitman, R.L., A. Aguayo L., and J. Urbán R. 1987. Observations of an unidentified beaked whale (Mesoplodon sp.) in the eastern tropical Pacific Marine Mammal Science 3, 345–352.

Pitman, R.L., Palacios, D.M., Brennan, P.L.R., Brennan, B.J., Balcomb III, K.C., and Miyashita, T. 1999. Sightings and possible identity of a bottlenose whale in the tropical Indo-Pacific: Indopacetus pacificus? Marine Mammal Science 15, 531–549.

Pizzorno, J.L.A. 1999. “Estimativa populacional do boto-cinza, Sotalia fluviatilis, na Baía de Guanabara, por meio de catálogo de fotoidentificação”. Dissertação de Mestrado. Instituto de florestas da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. 83pp.[In Portuguese].

Plagányi, É.E. and Butterworth, D.S. 2002. Competition with fisheries. Pp.268–273 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Polacheck, T. 1995. The effect of increasing observer trackline effort in shipboard line-transect surveys for harbor porpoise. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 69–88.

Politi, E. and Bearzi, G. [In press]. Evidence of rarefaction for a coastal common dolphin community in the eastern Ionian Sea. European Research on Cetaceans 15.

Praderi, R., Pinedo, M.C., and Crespo, E.A. 1989. Conservation and management of Pontoporia blainvillei in Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina. Pp.52–56 in: Biology and Conservation of the River Dolphins (eds. W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell Jr., Zhou Kaiya, and Liu Jiankang). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 3, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Preen, A. 1998. Marine protected areas and dugong conservation along Australia's Indian Ocean coast. Environmental Management 22, 173–181. [CrossRef]

Price, W.S. 1985. Whaling in the Caribbean: historical perspective and update. Report of the International Whaling Commission 35, 413–420.

Pulcini, M., Triossi, F., and Pace, D.S. [In press]. Distribution, habitat use and behaviour of bottlenose dolphins at Lampedusa Island (Italy): results of five years of survey. European Research on Cetaceans 15.

Rahman, M.G. 1986. Reducing the flow of the Ganges: the consequences for agriculture in Bangladesh. Pp.267–275 in: The Social and Environmental Effects of Large Dams. Vol. 2, Case Studies (eds. E. Goldsmith and N. Hilyard). Wadebridge Ecological Centre, Cornwall, UK.

Razafindrakoto, Y. and Rosenbaum, H.C. 1998. Distribution, abundance, and characteristics of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) wintering in Baie d'Antongil, Madagascar. World Science Conference on Marine Mammals, 20–24 January, Monaco.[Abstract].

Razafindrakoto, Y., Rosenbaum, H.C., and Helweg, D.A. 2001. First description of humpback whale song from Antongil Bay, Madagascar. Marine Mammal Science 17, 180–186.

Read, A.J. 1999. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758). Pp.323–355 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Read, A.J., Van Waerebeek, K., Reyes, J.C., McKinnon, J.S., and Lehman, L.C. 1988. The exploitation of small cetaceans in coastal Peru. Biological Conservation 46, 53–70. [CrossRef]

Reeves, R.R. 1993. Domestic and international trade in narwhal products. TRAFFIC Bulletin 14(1), 13–20.

Reeves, R.R. 1988. Exploitation of cetaceans in St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles, January 1987. Report of the International Whaling Commission 38, 445–447.

Reeves, R.R. 1998. Conservation status of the Indus river dolphin in Pakistan. IBI Reports (International Marine Biological Research Institute, Kamogawa, Japan) 8, 1–9.

Reeves, R.R. and Chaudhry, A.A. 1998. Status of the Indus River dolphin Platanista minor. Oryx 32, 35–44. [CrossRef]

Reeves, R.R., Chaudhry, A.A., and Khalid, U. 1991. Competing for water on the Indus Plain: is there a future for Pakistan's river dolphins? Environmental Conservation 18, 341–350.

Reeves, R.R. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. 1994. Commercial aspects of the exploitation of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Greenland, with emphasis on tusk exports. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 39, 119–134.

Reeves, R.R., Hofman, R.J., Silber, G.P., and Wilkinson, D. (eds.) 1996. Acoustic deterrents: proceedings of a workshop held in Seattle, Washington, USA, 20–22 March 1996. U.S Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-10. 67pp.

Reeves, R.R., Leatherwood, S., and Mohan, R.S.L. 1993. A future for Asian river dolphins: report from a seminar on the conservation of river dolphins in the Indian subcontinent. Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Bath, England.

Reeves, R.R. and Leatherwood, S. 1994a. 1994–1998 Action Plan for the Conservation of Cetaceans: Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 91pp.

Reeves, R.R. and Leatherwood, S. 1994b. Dams and river dolphins: can they co-exist? Ambio 23(3), 172–175.

Reeves, R.R., Ljungblad, D.K, and Clarke, J.T. 1984. Bowhead whales and acoustic seismic surveys in the Beaufort Sea. Polar Record 22, 271–280.

Reeves, R.R., McGuire, T.L., and Zúñiga, E.L. 1999c. Ecology and conservation of river dolphins in the Peruvian Amazon. IBI Reports (International Marine Biological Research Institute, Kamogawa, Japan) 9, 21–32.

Reeves, R.R., Clapham, P.J., Brownell Jr., R.L., and Silber, G.K. 1998. Recovery plan for the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD.

Reeves, R.R., Jefferson, T.A., Kasuya, T., Smith, B.D., Wang Ding, Wang, P., Wells, R.S., Würsig, B., and Zhou, K. 2000a. Report of the workshop to develop a conservation Action Plan for the Yangtze River finless porpoise, Ocean Park, Hong Kong, 16–18 September 1997. Pp.67–80 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Reeves, R.R., Read, A.J., and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 2001a. Report of the workshop on interactions between dolphins and fisheries in the Mediterranean: evaluation of mitigation alternatives, May 2001, Rome, Italy. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/53/SM3, Cambridge, UK.

Reeves, R.R. and Reijnders, P.J.H. 2002. Conservation and management. Pp.388–415 in: Marine Mammal Biology: An Evolutionary Approach (ed. A.R. Hoelzel). Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Reeves, R.R., Rolland, R., and Clapham, P.J. (eds.). 2001b. Causes of reproductive failure in North Atlantic right whales: new avenues of research. Report of a Workshop held 26–28 April 2000, Falmouth, Massachusetts. Northeast Fisheries Science Center Reference Document. 01–16.

Reeves, R.R., Smeenk, C., Brownell Jr., R.L., and Kinze, C.C. 1999b. Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus (Gray, 1828). Pp.31–56 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Reeves, R.R., Smeenk, C., Kinze, C.C., Brownell Jr., R.L., and Lien, J. 1999a. White-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris (Gray, 1846). Pp.1–30 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Reeves, R.R. and Smith, B.D. 1999. Interrupted migrations and dispersal of river dolphins: some ecological effects of riverine development. Pp.9–18 in: Proceedings of the CMS Symposium on Animal Migration (Gland, Switzerland, 13 April 1997) (eds. UNEP/CMS). CMS Technical Series Publication No. 2, Bonn/The Hague.

Reeves, R.R., Smith, B.D., and Kasuya, T. (eds.). 2000b. Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia. IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Reeves, R.R., Wang, J.Y., and Leatherwood, S. 1997. The finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier 1829): a summary of current knowledge and recommendations for conservation action. Asian Marine Biology 14, 111–143.

Reijnders, P.J.H., Aguilar, A., and Donovan, G.P. (eds.). 1999. Chemical pollutants and cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 1, Cambridge, UK.

Reyes, J.C., Mead, J.G., and Van Waerebeek, K. 1991. A new species of beaked whale Mesoplodon peruvianus. Marine Mammal Science 7, 1–24.

Reyes, J.C. and Oporto, J.A. 1994. Gillnet fisheries and cetaceans in the southeast Pacific. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 467–474.

Reyes, J.C., Van Waerebeek, K., Cárdenas, J.C., and Yáñez, J.L. 1996. Mesoplodon bahamondi sp. n. (Cetacea, Ziphiidae), a new living beaked whale from the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile 45, 31–44.

Reynolds, J.E. III, Wells, R.S., and Eide, S.D. 2000. The Bottlenose Dolphin: Biology and Conservation. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 289pp.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 4, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Richardson, W.J., Greene, C.R., Malme, C.I., and Thomsen, D.H. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. Academic Press, San Diego.

Richardson, W.J. and Malme, C.I. 1993. Man-made noise and behavioral responses. Pp.631–700 in: The Bowhead Whale (eds. J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles). Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Right Whale Recovery Team. 2000. Canadian North Atlantic Right Whale Recovery Plan. World Wildlife Fund Canada (Toronto) and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia). x + 90pp.

Rivarola, M., Campagna, C., and Tagliorette, A. 2001. Demand-driven commercial whalewatching in Península Valdés (Patagonia): conservation implications for right whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 145–151.

Roberts, T.J. 1997. The Mammals of Pakistan. Revised edition. Oxford University Press, Karachi.

Robineau, D. and Fiquet, P. 1994a. Cetaceans of Dawhat ad-Dafi and Dawhat al-Musallamiya (Saudi Arabia) one year after the Gulf War oil spill. Courier Forsch. Inst. Senckenberg 166, 76–80.

Robineau, D. and Fiquet, P. 1994b. The Cetacea of the Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary, Saudi Arabia. Pp.438–458 in: A Marine Wildlife Sanctuary for the Arabian Gulf: Environmental Research and Conservation Following the 1991 Gulf War Oil Spill (eds. F. Krupp, A.H. Abuzinada, and I.A. Nader). National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Robineau, D. and Vély, M. 1998. Les cétacés des côtes de Mauritanie (Afrique du Nord-Est). Particularités et variations spatio-temporelles de répartition: rôle des facteurs océanographiques. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 53, 123–152.

Rojas-Bracho, L., Clapham, P., Urbán, J., Manzanilla, S., Brownell, R., Taylor, B., Swartz, S., and Cipriano, F. [In press]. A word of caution for the Nautical Steps Tourist Development. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5 (Supplement).

Rojas-Bracho, L. and Jaramillo-Legorreta, A.M. 2002. Vaquita Phocoena sinus. Pp.1277–1280 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Rojas-Bracho, L. and Taylor, B.L. 1999. Risk factors affecting the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Marine Mammal Science 15, 974–989.

Romero, A., Agudo, A.I., and Green, S.M. 1997. Exploitation of cetaceans in Venezuela. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 735–746.

Rosel, P. 1997. A review and assessment of the status of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Atlantic. Pp.209–226 in: Molecular Genetics of Marine Mammals (eds. A.E. Dizon, S.J. Chivers, and W.F. Perrin). Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 3, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Rosel, P.E. and Rojas-Bracho, L. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the critically endangered vaquita Phocoena sinus Norris and MacFarland, 1958. Marine Mammal Science 15, 990–1003.

Rosel, P.E., Tiedemann, R., and Walton, M. 1999. Genetic evidence for limited trans-Atlantic movements of the harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena. Marine Biology 133, 583–591. [CrossRef]

Rosel, P.E., Dizon, A.E., and Haygood, M.G. 1995. Variability of the mitochondrial control region in populations of the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, on interoceanic and regional scales. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52, 1210–1219.

Rosenbaum, H.C., Brownwell Jr., R.L., Brown, M.W., Schaeff, C., Portway, V., White, B.N., Malik, S., Pastene, L.A., Patenaude, N.J., Baker, C.S., Goto, M., Best, P.B., Clapham, P.J., Hamilton, P., Moore, M., Payne, R., Rowntree, V., Tynan, C.T., Bannister J.L., and DeSalle, R. 2000. Worldwide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena: questioning the number of right whale species. Molecular Ecology 9, 1793–1802. [CrossRef]

Rosenbaum, H.C., Egan, M.G., Maiers, L.D., Amato, G., Brownell Jr., R.L., Whitridge, P., and Cosens, S.E. 2001a. Genetic diversity and population structure in bowhead whales evaluated through historical and extant samples. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/53/BRG6, Cambridge, UK.

Rosenbaum, H.C., Ersts, P., and Findlay, K. 2001b. Regional planning workshop on collaborative research and conservation of humpback whales in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/53/IA23, Cambridge, UK.

Rosenbaum, H.C., Walsh, P.D., Razafindrakoto, Y., Vély, M., and DeSalle, R. 1997. First description of a humpback whale breeding ground in Baie d'Antongil, Madagascar. Conservation Biology 11, 312–314.

Ross, G.J.B., Heinsohn, G.E., and Cockcroft, V.G. 1994. Humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765), Sousa plumbea (G. Cuvier, 1829) and Sousa teuszii (Kukenthal, 1892). Pp.23–42 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 5: The First Book of Dolphins (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, London.

Ross, P.S., Ellis, G.M., Ikonomou, M.G., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., and Addison, R.F. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40, 504–515. [CrossRef]

Rowles, T., Ketten, D., Ewing, R., Whaley, J., Bater, A., and Gentry, R. 2000. Mass stranding of multiple cetacean species in the Bahamas on March 15–17, 2000. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/52/E28. Cambridge, UK.

Rowntree, V.J., Payne, R.S., and Schell, D.M. 2001. Changing patterns of habitat use by southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) on their nursery ground at Península Valdés, Argentina, and in their long-range movements. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 133–143.

Rudolph, P., Smeenk, C., and Leatherwood, S. 1997. Preliminary checklist of Cetacea in the Indonesian archipelago and adjacent waters. Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden 312, 48pp.

Russell, K. 1999. “The North Island Hector's dolphin: a species in need of conservation”. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Auckland.

Santos, M.C. de O. 1998. O boto-cinza Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea, Delphinidae) no complexo estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia, SP: evidencia de padrao de residencia e uso de área. Proceedings of the IV Simposio de Ecosistemas Brasileiros, 2 to 7 April 1998, Aguas de Lindóia, SP, Brasil. Volume 1, 248–253.

Santos, M.C. de O. 1999. “Novas informações sobre cetáceos no litoral sul de São Paulo e norte do Paraná com base em estudos sobre encalhes e na aplicação da técnica de foto-identificação individual de Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea, Delphinidae)”. Master Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo. 114pp.[In Portuguese].

Scarff, J.E. 2001. Preliminary estimates of whaling-induced mortality in the 19th century North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonicus) fishery, adjusting for struck-but-lost whales and non-American whaling. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) 2, 261–268.

Schiavini, A., Pedraza, S.N., Crespo, E.A., González, R., and Dans, S.L. 1999. Abundance of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off north and central Patagonia, Argentina, in spring and a comparison with incidental catch in fisheries. Marine Mammal Science 15, 828–840.

Scott, G.P. 1990. Management-oriented research on bottlenose dolphins by the Southeast Fisheries Center. Pp.623–639 in: The Bottlenose Dolphin (eds. S. Leatherwood and R.R. Reeves). Academic Press, San Diego.

Secchi, E.R. 1999. “Taxa de crescimento potencial intrínseco de um estoque de franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844) (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae) sob o impacto da pesca costeira de emalhe”. M.Sc. thesis. Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande. Rio Grande, RS. 152pp.[In Portuguese].

Secchi, E.R., Danilewicz, D., and Ott, P.H. [In press a]. Applying the phylogeographic concept to identify franciscana dolphin stocks: implications to meet management objectives. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.

Secchi, E.R., Ott, P.H., Crespo, E.A., Kinas, P.G., Pedraza, S.N., and Bordino, P. 2001a. A first estimate of franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) abundance off southern Brazil. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, 95–100.

Secchi, E.R., Ott, P.H., and Danilewicz, D. 2002. Report of the fourth workshop for the coordinated research and conservation of the franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) in the western South Atlantic. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals (Special Issue) 1, 11–20.

Secchi, E.R., Ott, P.H., and Danilewicz, D.S. [In press b]. Effects of fishing by-catch and conservation status of the franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei. In: Marine Mammals and Humans: Towards a Sustainable Balance (eds. N. Gales, M. Hindell, and R. Kirkwood). Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

Secchi, E.R., Slooten, E., and Fletcher, D. 2001b. Population Viability Analysis (PVA) for a franciscana stock: when is time for action? International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/53/SM4, Cambridge, UK.

Secchi, E.R. and Vaske Jr., T. 1998. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) sightings and depredation on tuna and swordfish longline catches in southern Brazil. Aquatic Mammals 24, 117–122.

Secchi, E.R. and Wang, J.Y. 2002. Assessment of the conservation status of a franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) stock in the Franciscana Management Area III following the IUCN Red List process. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals (Special Issue) 1, 183–190.

Secchi, E.R., Wang, J.Y., Murray, B., Rocha-Campos, C.C., and White, B.N. 1998. Populational differences between franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei, from two geographical locations as indicated by sequences of mtDNA control region. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76, 1622–1627. [CrossRef]

Secchi, E.R., Zerbini, A.N., Bassoi, M., Dalla Rosa, L., Möller, L.M., and Rocha-Campos, C.C. 1997. Mortality of franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei, in coastal gillnets in southern Brazil: 1994–1995. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 653–658.

Shirakihara, M., Shirakihara, K., and Takemura, A. 1994. Distribution and seasonal density of the finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides, in the coastal waters of western Kyushu. Japan Fisheries Science 60(1), 82–85.

Siciliano, S. 1994. Review of small cetaceans and fishery interactions in coastal waters of Brazil. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 241–250.

Sielfeld K., W. 1983. Mamíferos Marinos de Chile. Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago.

Sigurjónsson, J. and Gunnlaugsson, T. 1990. Recent trends in abundance of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off west. and southwest Iceland, with a note on occurrence of other cetacean species. Report of the International Whaling Commission 40, 537–551.

Silber, G.K. and Payne, P.M. 1998. Implementation of the northern right whale recovery plan. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/M98/RW9, Cambridge, UK.

Silvani, L., Gazo, M., and Aguilar, A. 1999. Spanish driftnet fishing and incidental catches in the western Mediterranean. Biological Conservation 90, 79–85. [CrossRef]

Silvani, L., Raich, J., and Aguilar, A. 1992. Bottle-nosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, interacting with fisheries in the Balearic Islands, Spain. European Research on Cetaceans 6, 32–34.

Simmonds, M.P. and Hutchinson, J. (eds.). 1996. The Conservation of Whales and Dolphins: Science and Practice. Wiley, Chichester, UK.

Simmons, D.C. 1968. Purse seining off Africa's west coast. Commercial Fisheries Review 30, 21–22.

Simões-Lopes, P.C. and Ximenez, A. 1993. Annotated list of the cetaceans of Santa Catarina coastal waters, southern Brazil. Biotemas, Florianópolis 6(1), 67–92.

Sinha, R.K. 1997. Status and conservation of Ganges river dolphin in Bhagirathi-Hooghly river systems in India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 23, 343–355.

Sinha, R.K. 2000. Status of the Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in the vicinity of Farakka Barrage, India. Pp.42–48 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Sinha, R.K. 2002. An alternative to dolphin oil as a fish attractant in the Ganges River system: conservation of the Ganges River dolphin. Biological Conservation 107, 253–257. [CrossRef]

Sinha, R.K., Smith, B.D., Sharma, G., Prasad, K., Choudhury, B.C., Sapkota, K., Sharma, R.K., and Behera, S.K. 2000. Status and distribution of the Ganges susu, Platanista gangetica, in the Ganges River system of India and Nepal. Pp.54–61 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN Species Survival Commission Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Sivasubramanian, K. 1964. Predation of tuna longline catches in the Indian Ocean, by killer-whales and sharks. Bull. Fish. Res. Stn., Ceylon 17(2), 221–236.

Skóra, K.E., Pawliczka, I., and Klinowska, M. 1988. Observations of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) on the Polish Baltic coast. Aquatic Mammals 14, 113–119.

Slooten, E., Dawson, S., and Rayment, W. 2002. Quantifying abundance of Hector's dolphins between Farewell Spit and Milford Sound. Published Client Report on Contract 3076, funded by Conservation Services Levy. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand. http://csl.doc.govt.nz/dsis35.pdf.

Slooten, E., Fletcher, D., and Taylor, B.L. 2000. Accounting for uncertainty in risk assessment: case study of Hector's dolphin mortality due to gillnet entanglement. Conservation Biology 14, 1264–1270. [CrossRef]

Slooten, E. and Lad, F. 1991. Population biology and conservation of Hector's dolphin. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69, 1701–1707.

Smith, A.M. and Smith, B.D. 1998. Review of status and threats to river cetaceans and recommendations for their conservation. Environmental Reviews 6, 189–206. [CrossRef]

Smith, B.D., Ahmed, B., Edrise, M., and Braulik, G. 2001. Status of the Ganges river dolphin or shushuk Platanista gangetica in Kaptai Lake and the southern rivers of Bangladesh. Oryx 35, 61–71. [CrossRef]

Smith, B.D., Aminul Haque, A.K.M., Hossain, M.S., and Khan, A. 1998. River dolphins in Bangladesh: conservation and the effects of water development. Environmental Management 22, 323–335. [CrossRef]

Smith, B.D. and Hobbs, L. 2002. Status of Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris in the upper reaches of the Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement, 67–73.

Smith, B.D., Jefferson, T.A., Leatherwood, S., Ho, D.T., Thuoc, C.V., and Quang, L.H. 1997a. Investigations of marine mammals in Vietnam. Asian Marine Biology 4, 145–172.

Smith, B.D. and Reeves, R.R. (eds.). 2000a. Report of the second meeting of the Asian river dolphin committee, 22–24 February 1997, Rajendrapur, Bangladesh. Pp.1–14 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Smith, B.D. and Reeves, R.R. (eds.). 2000b. Report of the workshop on the effects of water development on river cetaceans, 26–28 February 1997, Rajendrapur, Bangladesh. Pp.15–22 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Smith, B.D. and Reeves, R.R. 2000c. Survey methods for population assessment of Asian river dolphins. Pp.97–115 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Smith, B.D., Sinha, R.K., Regmi, U., and Sapkota, K. 1994. Status of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica) in the Karnali, Mahakali, Narayani and Sapta Kosi rivers of Nepal and India in 1993. Marine Mammal Science 10, 368–375.

Smith, B.D., Sinha, R.K., Zhou, K., Chaudhry, A.A., Renjun, L., Wang, D., Ahmed, B., Haque, A.K.M., and Sapkota, K. 2000. Register of water development projects affecting Asian river cetaceans. Pp.22–39 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Smith, B.D. and Smith, A. 2000. WDCS Asian river cetacean conservation action plan. Unpublished Report Available from the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James Street West, Bath, Avon, BA1 2BT, England.

Smith, B.D., Thant, U.H., Lwin, J.M., and Shaw, C.D. 1997b. Investigation of cetaceans in the Ayeyarwady River and northern coastal waters of Myanmar. Asian Marine Biology 14, 173–194.

Smith, T.D. 1982. Current understanding of the status of small cetacean populations in the Black Sea. Pp.121–130 in: Mammals in the Seas, Volume IV: Small Cetaceans, Seals, Sirenians and Otters. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Fisheries Series No. 5, Vol. IV, Rome.

Smith, T.D., Allen, J., Clapham, P.J., Hammond, P.S., Katona, S., Larsen, F., Lien, J., Mattila, D., Palsbøll, P.J., Sigurjónsson, J., Stevick, P.T., and Øien, N. 1999. An ocean-basin-wide mark-recapture study of the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Marine Mammal Science 15, 1–32.

Southwest Fisheries Science Center. 1999. International Dolphin Conservation Program Act, Report to Congress. Available at swfsc.nmfs.noaa.gov/mmd/congress/ReportToCongress/idcpa.325.html.

Stacey, P.J. and Arnold, P.W. 1999. Orcaella brevirostris. Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) 616, 8pp.

Stacey, P.J. and Leatherwood, S. 1997. The Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris: a summary of current knowledge and recommendations for conservation action. Asian Marine Biology 14, 195–214.

Stacey, P.J., Leatherwood, S., and Baird, R.W. 1994. Pseudorca crassidens. Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) 456, 6pp.

Stanners, D. and Bourdeau, P. (eds.). 1995. Europe's Environment: The Dobris Assessment. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen. 676pp.

St. Aubin, D.J., Geraci, J.R., and Lounsbury, V.J. (eds.). 1996. Rescue, rehabilitation and release of marine mammals: an analysis of current views and practices. Proceedings of a Workshop held in Des Plaines, Illinois, 3–5 December 1991. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-8. 65pp.

Steiger, G.H. and Calambokidis, J. 2000. Reproductive rates of humpback whales off California. Marine Mammal Science 16, 220–239.

Stone, G., Cavagnaro, L., Hutt, A., Kraus, S., Baldwin, K., and Brown, J. 2000. Reactions of Hector's dolphins to acoustic gillnet pingers. New Zealand Department of Conservation Technical Report Series, Wellington, New Zealand.

Stone, G. and Yoshinaga, A. 2000. Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) calf mortalities may indicate new risks from boat traffic and habituation. Pacific Conservation Biology 6, 162–171.

Tamura, T. and Ohsumi, S. 2000. Regional assessments of prey consumption by marine cetaceans in the world. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/52/E 6, Cambridge, UK.

Tanabe, S., Subramanian, A., Ramesh, A., Kumaran, P.L., Miyazaki, N., and Tatsukawa, R. 1993. Persistent organochlorine residues in dolphins from the Bay of Bengal, South India. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26, 311–316. [CrossRef]

Tas'an and Leatherwood, S. 1984. Cetaceans live-captured for Jaya Ancol Oceanarium, Djakarta, 1974–1982. Report to the International Whaling Commission 34, 485–489.

Taylor, B.L. and Dizon, A.E. 1999. First policy then science: why a management unit based solely on genetic criteria cannot work. Molecular Ecology 8, S11-S16. [CrossRef]

Taylor, B.L. and Gerrodette, T. 1993. The uses of statistical power in conservation biology: the vaquita and northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 7, 489–500. [CrossRef]

Taylor, B.L. and Rojas-Bracho, L. 1999. Examining the risk of inbreeding depression in a naturally rare cetacean, the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Marine Mammal Science 15, 1004–1028.

Taylor, P.R. 1992. Incidental catch of non-fish species in setnets in New Zealand waters. Fisheries Assessment Research Document 92/21, available from Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand.

Thode, A., Norris, T., and Barlow, J. 2000. Frequency beamforming of dolphin whistles using a sparse three-element towed array. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 107, 3581–3584. [CrossRef]

Tiago, G.C., Tutui, S.L. dos S., von Seckendorff, R.W., Grassi, R.T.B., and Inácio, M.L. da S. 1995. Análise da frota pesqueira sediada em Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca 22(2), 71–83.

Tobayama, T., Yanagisawa, F., and Kasuya, T. 1992. Incidental take of minke whales in Japanese trap nets. Report of the International Whaling Commission 42, 433–436.

Todd, S., Stevick, P., Lien, J., Marques, F., and Ketten, D. 1996. Behavioural effects of underwater explosions in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 1661–1672.

Tomilin, A.G. 1967. Mammals of the USSR and Adjacent Countries. Vol. 9. Cetacea. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. 717pp. [Originally published in Moscow, 1957].

Tormosov, D.D., Mikhaliev, Y.A., Best, P.B., Zemsky, V.A., Sekiguchi, K., and Brownell Jr., R.L. 1998. Soviet catches of southern right whales Eubalaena australis, 1951–1971. Biological data and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 86, 185–197. [CrossRef]

Tregenza, N.J.C., Berrow, S.D., Hammond, P.S., and Leaper, R. 1997. Common dolphin, Delphinus delphis L., bycatch in bottom gillnets in the Celtic Sea Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 835–839.

Tregenza, N.J.C. and Collet, A. 1998. Common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch in pelagic trawl and other fisheries in the North East Atlantic. Report of the International Whaling Commission 48, 453–459.

Trippel, E.A., Wang, J.Y., Strong, M.B., Carter, L.S., and Conway, J.D. 1996. Incidental mortality of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) by the gill-net fishery in the lower Bay of Fundy. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53, 1294–1300. [CrossRef]

Trujillo, F. 1997. “The development of a research methodology to study the behaviour and ecology of the freshwater dolphins Inia geoffrensis and Sotalia fluviatilis in the Colombian Amazon”. M.Sc. thesis, University of Greenwich, London. 122pp.

Twiss, J.R. and Reeves, R.R. (eds.). 1999. Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Tyack, P.L. 1999. Communication and cognition. Pp.287–323 in: Biology of Marine Mammals (eds. J.E. Reynolds III and S.A. Rommel). Smithsonian Insitution Press, Washington, DC.

Tyack, P.L. 2000. Functional aspects of cetacean communication. Pp.270–307 in: Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales (eds. J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 433pp.

Tynan, C.T. and DeMaster, D.P. 1997. Observations and predictions of Arctic climate change: potential effects on marine mammals. Arctic 50, 308–322.

UNEP/IUCN. 1994. Technical report on the state of cetaceans in the Mediterranean. Mediterranean Action Plan Technical Reports Series No. 82, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas, Tunis. 37pp.

van Bree, P.J.H. and Gallagher, M.D. 1978. On the taxonomic status of Delphinus tropicalis van Bree, 1971 (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea IX). Beaufortia 28, 1–8.

Van Bressem, M.F., Visser, I.K.G., De Swart, R.L., Orvell, C., Stanzani, L., Androukaki, E., Siakavara, K., and Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. 1993. Dolphin morbillivirus infection in different parts of the Mediterranean Sea. Archives of Virology 129, 235–242. [CrossRef]

van Helden, A.L., Baker, A.N., Dalebout, M.L., Reyes, J.C., Van Waerebeek, K., and Baker, C.S. 2002. Resurrection of Mesoplodon traversii (Gray, 1874), senior synonym of M. bahamondi Reyes, Van Waerebeek, Cárdenas and Yáñez, 1995 (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Marine Mammal Science 18, 609–621.

Van Waerebeek, K. 1994. A note on the status of the dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off Peru. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 525–527.

Van Waerebeek, K., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Montes, D., Onton, K., Santillan, L., Van Bressem, M.-F., and Vega, D. 2002. Fisheries related mortality of small cetaceans in neritic waters of Peru in 1999–2001. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/54/SM10, Cambridge, UK.

Van Waerebeek, K., André, M., Sequeira, M., Martín, V., Robineau, D., Collet, A., Papastavrou, V., and Ndiaye, E. 1999a. Spatial and temporal distribution of the minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Lacépède, 1804), in the southern northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with reference to stock identity. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1, 223–237.

Van Waerebeek, K., Barnett, L., Camara, A., Cham, A., Diallo, M., Djiba, A., Drammeh, F., Jallow, A., Ndiaye, E., and Samba Ould Bilal, A.O. 2001a. Conservation efforts and field research on cetaceans in Senegal and The Gambia. Report to UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.

Van Waerebeek, K., Ndiaye, E., Djiba, A., Diallo, M., Murphy, P., Jallow, A., Camara, A., Ndiaye, P., and Tous, P. 2000. A survey of the conservation status of cetaceans in Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. Report to UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 80pp.

Van Waerebeek, K. and Ofori-Danson, P.K. 1999. A first checklist of cetaceans of Ghana, Gulf of Guinea, and a shore-based survey of interactions with coastal fisheries. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/51/SM35, Cambridge, UK.

Van Waerebeek, K. and Reyes, J.C. 1994. Post-ban small cetacean takes off Peru: a review. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 503–519.

Van Waerebeek, K., Reyes, J.C., Read, A.J., and McKinnon, J.S. 1990. Preliminary observations of bottlenose dolphins from the Pacific coast of South America. Pp.143–154 in: The Bottlenose Dolphin (eds. S. Leatherwood and R.R. Reeves). Academic Press, San Diego.

Van Waerebeek, K., Tchibozo, S., Montcho, J., Nobime, G., Sohou, Z., Sehouhoue, P., and Dossou, C. 2001b. The Bight of Benin, a North Atlantic breeding ground of a Southern Hemisphere humpback whale population, likely related to Gabon and Angola substocks. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/53/IA21, Cambridge, UK.

Van Waerebeek, K., Van Bressem, M.-F., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Sanino, G.P., Montes, D., and Ontón, K. 1999b. A preliminary analysis of recent captures of small cetaceans in Peru and Chile. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/51/SM17, Cambridge, UK.

Van Waerebeek, K., Van Bressem, M.-F., Félix, F., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., García-Godos, A., Chávez-Lisambart, L., Ontón, K., Montes, D., and Bello, R. 1997. Mortality of dolphins and porpoises in coastal fisheries off Peru and southern Ecuador in 1994. Biological Conservation 81, 43–49. [CrossRef]

Vidal, O. 1995. Population biology and incidental mortality of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 16, 247–272.

Vidal, O., Brownell Jr., R.L., and Findley, L.T. 1999. Vaquita Phocoena sinus Norris and McFarland, 1958. Pp.357–378 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Vidal, O., Findley, L.T., and Leatherwood, S. 1993. Annotated checklist of the marine mammals of the Gulf of California. Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History 28, 1–16.

Vidal, O. and Gallo-Reynoso, J.-P. 1996. Die-offs of marine mammals and sea birds in the Gulf of California, México. Marine Mammal Science 12, 627–635.

Vidal, O., Van Waerebeek, K., and Findley, L.T. 1994. Cetaceans and gillnet fisheries in Mexico, Central America and the wider Caribbean: a preliminary review. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 221–233.

Víkingsson, G.A. and Kapel, F.O. (eds.). 2000. Minke whales, harp and hooded seals: major predators in the North Atlantic ecosystem. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, Scientific Publications No. 2.

Villa Ramírez, B. 1993. Recovery plan for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Contract Report to Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC. NTIS PB93-169415.

Vinther, M. 1999. Bycatches of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena L.) in Danish set-net fisheries Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1, 123–135.

Wade, P.R. 1993. Estimation of historical population size of eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). Fishery Bulletin 91, 775–787.

Wade, P.R. 1995. Revised estimates of incidental kill of dolphins (Delphinidae) by the purse-seine tuna fishery in the eastern tropical Pacific, 1959–1972. Fishery Bulletin 93, 345–354.

Wade, P. 1998. Calculating limits to the allowable human-caused mortality of cetaceans and pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 14, 1–37.

Wade, P.R. and Gerrodette, T. 1993. Estimates of cetacean abundance and distribution in the eastern tropical Pacific. Report of the International Whaling Commission 43, 477–493.

Walsh, P.D., Fay, J.M., Gulick, S., and Sounguet, G.P. 2000. Humpback whale activity near Cap Lopez, Gabon. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 63–67.

Wang, D. 2000. Population status and conservation of baiji and Yangtze finless porpoise. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/52/SM17, Cambridge, UK.

Wang, D., Liu, R., Zhang, X., Yang, J., Wei, Z., Zhao, Q., and Wang, X. 2000. Status and conservation of the Yangtze finless porpoise. Pp.81–85 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Wang, J.Y., Chou, L.-S., and White, B.D. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of sympatric morphotypes of bottlenose dolphins (genus: Tursiops) in Chinese waters. Molecular Ecology 8, 1603–1612. [CrossRef]

Waring, G.T., Quintal, J.M., and Swartz, S.L. (eds.). 2001. U.S Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments – 2001. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-168. 310pp.

Weisbrod, A.V., Shea, D., Moore, M.J., and Stegeman, J.J. 2000. Organochlorine exposure and bioaccumulation in the endangered northwest Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) population. Environ. Tox. Chem. 19, 654–666. [CrossRef]

Weller, D.W., Burdin, A.M., Würsig, B., Taylor, B.L., and Brownell Jr., R.L. 2002. The western gray whale: a review of past exploitation, current status and potential threats. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 7–12.

Wells, R.S., Bassos, M.K., Urian, K.W., Shane, S.H., Owen, E.C.G., Weiss, C.F., Carr, W.J., and Scott, M.D. 1997. Low-level monitoring of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Pine Island Sound, Florida:1996. Final Contract Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Miami, FL. Contr. No. 40-WCNF601958. 86pp.

Wells, R.S., Rhinehart, H.L., Cunningham, P., Whaley, J., Baran, M., Koberna, C., and Costa, D.P. 1999. Long distance offshore movements of bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mammal Science 15, 1098–1114.

Wells, R.S. and Scott, M.D. 1999. Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821). Pp.137–182 in: Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises (eds. S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press, San Diego.

Whitehead, H., Christal, J., and Dufault, S. 1997a. Past and distant whaling and the rapid decline of sperm whales off the Galápagos Islands. Conservation Biology 11, 1387–1396. [CrossRef]

Whitehead, H., Faucher, A., Gowans, S., and McCarrey, S. 1997b. Status of the northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus, in The Gully, Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111, 287–292.

Whitehead, H., Gowans, S., Faucher, A., and McCarrey, S.W. 1997c. Population analysis of northern bottlenose whales in The Gully, Nova Scotia. Marine Mammal Science 13, 173–185.

Whitehead, H., Reeves, R.R., and Tyack, P.L. 2000. Science and the conservation, protection, and management of wild cetaceans. Pp.308–332 in: Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales (eds. J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 433pp.

Whitehead, H. and Weilgart, L. 1995. Marine mammal science, the U.S Navy and academic freedom. Marine Mammal Science 11, 260–263.

Whitehead, H. and Weilgart, L. 2000. The sperm whale: social females and roving males. Pp.154–172 in: Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales (eds. J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 433pp.

Wiig, Ø. 1991. Seven bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L.) observed at Franz Josef Land in 1990 Marine Mammal Science 7, 316–319.

Wijnstekers, W. 2001. The Evolution of CITES. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland.

Wilkinson, D. and Worthy, G.A.J. 1999. Marine mammal stranding networks. Pp.396–411 in: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals (eds. J.R. Twiss, Jr. and R.R. Reeves). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Wirawan, N. 1989. Protecting the pesut (freshwater dolphin) in the Mahakam River of Kalimantan, Borneo. Unpublished report to World Wildlife Fund/IUCN, Project. 1687.

Woodby, D.A. and Botkin, D.B. 1993. Stock sizes prior to commercial whaling. Pp.387–407 in: The Bowhead Whale (eds. J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles). Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

World Commission on Dams. 2000. Dams and development: a new framework for decision-making. The Report of the World Commission on Dams. Earthscan, London.

Würsig, B., Cipriano, F., Slooten, E., Constantine, R., Barr, K., and Yin, S. 1997. Dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off New Zealand: status of present knowledge. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 715–722.

Würsig, B., Greene Jr., C.R., and Jefferson, T.A. 2000. Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling. Marine Environmental Research 49, 79–93. [CrossRef]

Würsig, B., Reeves, R.R., and Ortega-Ortiz, J.G. 2001. Global climate change and marine mammals. Pp.589–608 in: Marine Mammals: Biology and Conservation (eds. P.G.H. Evans and J.A.Raga). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Würsig, B. and Richardson, W.J. 2002. Effects of noise. Pp.794–802 in: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Yablokov, A.V. 1994. Validity of whaling data. Nature 367, 108. [CrossRef]

Yang, S.-C., Liao, H.-C., Pan, C.-L., and Wang, J.Y. 1999. A survey of cetaceans in the waters of central-eastern Taiwan. Asian Marine Biology 16, 23–34.

Yano, K. and Dahlheim, M. 1995. Killer whale, Orcinus orca, depredation on longline catches of bottomfish in the southeastern Bering Sea and adjacent waters. Fishery Bulletin 93, 355–372.

Yatsu, A., Hiramatsu, K., and Hayase, S. 1994. A review of the Japanese squid driftnet fishery with notes on the cetacean bycatch. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 365–379.

Yoshida, H. and Kato, H. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Bryde's whales in the western North Pacific and adjacent waters inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Marine Mammal Science 15, 1269–1286.

Zachariassen, P. 1993. Pilot whale catches in the Faroe Islands, 1709–1992. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 14, 69–88.

Zanelatto, R.C. 1997. Captura acidental de toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844) (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae), no litoral do estado do Paraná, Brasil. Pp.22–29 in: Anais do 2° Encontro sobre Coordenação de Pesquisa e Manejo da Franciscana. (eds. M.C. Pinedo and A.S. Barreto). Ed. FURG, Rio Grande.

Zavala-González, A., Urbán-Ramírez, J., and Esquivel-Macías, C. 1994. A note on artisanal fisheries interactions with small cetaceans in Mexico. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 235–237.

Zeh, J.E., Clark, C.W., George, J.C., Withrow, D., Carroll, G.M., and Koski, W.R. 1993. Current population size and dynamics. Pp.409–489 in: The Bowhead Whale (eds. J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles). Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Zeh, J.E., George, J.C., and Suydam, R. 1995. Population size and rate of increase, 1978–1993, of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus. Report of the International Whaling Commission 45, 339–344.

Zemsky, V.A., Berzin, A.A., Mikhaliev, Y.A., and Tormosov, D.D. 1995a. Soviet Antarctic pelagic whaling afterWWII: review of actual catch data. Report of the International Whaling Commission 45, 131–135.

Zemsky, V.A., Berzin, A.A., Mikhalyev, Y.u.A., and Tormosov, D.D. 1995b. Soviet Antarctic Whaling Data (1947–1972). Center for Russian Environmental Policy, Moscow. 320pp.

Zerbini, A.N. and Kotas, J.E. 1998. A note on cetacean bycatch in pelagic driftnetting off southern Brazil. Report of the International Whaling Commission 48, 519–524.

Zerbini, A.N., Secchi, E.R., Siciliano, S., and Simões-Lopes, P.C. 1997. A review of the occurrence and distribution of whales of the genus Balaenoptera along the Brazilian coast. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 407–417.

Zhang, X., Liu, R., Zhao, Q., Zhang, G., Wei, Z., Wang, X., and Yang, J. 1993. The population of finless porpoise in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. Acta Theriologica Sinica 13(4), 260–270.

Zhang, X., Wang Ding., Liu, R., Hua, Y., Wang Y., Chen, Z., and Wang, L. 2001. Latest population of the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and its conservation in the Yangtze River, China. Pp.41–53 in: [Proceedings of] Conference on Conservation of Cetaceans in China, March 2001, Shanghai. Published by Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China.

Zhou, K., Ellis, S., Leatherwood, S., Bruford, M., and Seal, U. (eds.). 1994. Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) population and habitat viability analysis. Mammalogical Society of China, IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group, and IUCN Captive Breeding Specialist Group. 252pp.

Zhou, K., Leatherwood, S., and Jefferson, T.A. 1995. Records of small cetaceans in Chinese waters: a review. Asian Marine Biology 12, 119–139.

Zhou, K., Qian, W., and Li, Y. 1977. Studies on the distribution of baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Miller. Acta Zoologica Sinica 23, 72–79. [In Chinese; English summary.].

Zhou, K., Sun, J., Gao, A., and Würsig, B. 1998. Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) in the lower Yangtze River: movements, numbers, threats and conservation needs. Aquatic Mammals 24, 123–132.

Zhou, K. and Wang, X. 1994. Brief review of passive fishing gear and incidental catches of small cetaceans in Chinese waters. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 15, 347–354.

Zhou, K., Yang, G., Gao, A., Sun, J., and Xu, X. 2000. Abundance and distribution of finless porpoises in the Nanjing-Hukou section of the lower Yangtze River. Pp.91–96 in: Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia (eds. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya). IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Øien, N. 1996. Lagenorhynchus species in Norwegian waters as revealed from incidental observations and recent sighting surveys. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee Document SC/48/SM15, Cambridge, UK.


< previous section  < index >  next section >