WCC 2016 Rec 100 - Progress Report

General information
IUCN Constituencies implementing this Resolution
IUCN Members: 
Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife / South Africa
Ministry of Environment and Tourism / Namibia
IUCN Commissions: 
IUCN Species Survival Commission 2017-2020 (SSC)
IUCN Secretariat: 
Indicate which actions have been carried out to implement this Resolution : 
Convene stakeholders/Networking
Policy influencing/advocacy
Scientific/technical activities
Describe the results/achievements of the actions taken: 
A report ‘An assessment of the potential risks of the practice of intensive and selective breeding of game to biodiversity and the biodiversity economy’, is in final draft stage. The report concludes that there are several concerns and their associated direct and indirect impacts related to the practice of selective breeding and intensive management of game that pose a significant risk to South Africa’s biodiversity and the biodiversity economy. Another publicaiton, ‘Intentional Genetic Manipulation’ as a conservation threat was published in Conservation Genetics Resources (2018) as a direct response to the Resolution. In summary, both scientific assessments are highlighting significant biodiversity and broader biodiversity economy threats, and both are suggesting policy interventions to reduce the risks.

Following an increase in number of landowners wanting to engage in the practice of intensive and selective breeding of game in Namibia, the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism has been proactively engaging in processes to review threats, policy and legislation. This process has involved convening a seminar with international specialists, including the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group, and those with experience in the potential issues and risks. Following this various measures have been incorporated into the draft conservation Bill that would make provision for better regulation of the practise of selective breeding, as well as to empower the Minister to regulate the import and export of animals.

The South African Hunters and Game Conservation Association has highlighted, in particular, the reputational and associated economic risks of selected breeding to the wildlife economy of South Africa. This organisation has also sponsored research into aspects of the risks of the practice of intensive breeding, particularly a scientific assessment of the increase in impermeable fencing in wild systems. A process to develop industry standards and certification has been initiated in South Africa.
What challenges/obstacles have been encountered in the implementation of this Resolution and how were they overcome : 
Given the economic drivers for intensive and selective breeding there are always going to be tensions and challenges between regulators and industry.
One of the main challenges at present is for governments to have a full understanding of the risks, and therefore justification for and an appreciation of regulatory and market-based approaches required. This will be partially addressed for South Africa when the Scientific Authority release their report and recommendations in 2018, and when Namibia gazette their new environmental legislation. The other key challenge is to ensure greater transparency regarding activities and products to allow for effective consumer choice e.g. for a prospective hunter to know that the animal in a ‘wild’ area was released there from a captive facility where artificial selection for horn and body size was practiced etc. Presently there is no ready way for hunters or other consumers to get this information. An overarching challenge is that there is no effective subregional or international coordination or reporting mechanism in place. There has been no progress in this regard, although South Africa has a ‘Wildlife Forum’ that is supposed to discuss some of these issues.
Briefly describe what future actions are needed for the implementation of this Resolution: 
Create a uniform and coherent legal and regulatory framework, within and across countries, to manage the risks associated with this practice.
Develop an effective certification system to allow for consumer choice and for effective incentives for landowners undertaking conservation-compatible practices.
Establish an effective international forum or forums (at least at a subregional scale) to discuss issues and recommend common approaches.
Status of implementation
Status of implementation for this Resolution: 
Initiated: first stages of implementation
Additional information
Are these actions planned for yet: